श्रीकृष्ण द्वारा कही श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता पर हर काल में बहुत बार लिखा गया और बोला गया है, फिर भी जब भी मैं इसे पढ़ता या सुनता हूँ तो मुझे हमेशा कुछ नया समझ में आता है।
गीता की शुरुआत युद्ध की भूमि में अर्जुन के युद्ध नहीं लड़ने के कारण हुई। श्रीकृष्ण द्वारा अर्जुन को समझाने के लिए ही गीता कही गयी थी| युद्ध को धर्मयुक्त मानने से लेकर उसकी सीमा का वर्णन करते हुए श्रीकृष्ण ने कर्म, कर्मफल, सन्यास व अन्य विषयों पर भी चर्चा की। कई लोग भ्रमवश गीता को या यूं कहें की श्रीकृष्ण को ही युद्ध का कारण मानते हैं, किन्तु गीता केवल सही और गलत की बात करती है, हिंसा या अहिंसा की नहीं। जैसे कोई देश जो आतंकवाद से पीड़ित है उसके लिए युद्ध करना या युद्ध के लिए तैयार रहना एकदम सही है और जो आतंकवाद के पोषक देश हैं उनके लिए गलत।
गीता एक आम इंसान की रोज़मर्रा की ज़िन्दगी को भी दिशा देती है। पहले की तरह आज जीने के तरीके पूर्णरूप से बदल चुकें है किन्तु समस्या जो पांच हज़ार वर्ष पहले थी जब गीता कही गयी थी आज भी वही है जैसे अवसाद (डिप्रेशन), भय (फियर), कुंठा (फ़्रस्ट्रेशन), आत्मविश्वास की कमी (लैक ऑफ़ कॉन्फिडेंस) यह सारी भावनात्मक समस्याएँ जैसे की तैसे हैं।
आज सारे विश्व में भावनाओं का आवेश है हर कोई भावनात्मक दृष्टिकोण से ही सही-गलत का निर्णय कर रहा है और गीता इसके उलट बुद्धि के प्रयोग पर ही बल देती है। इसी कारण यह पूर्णरूप से मनोवैज्ञानिक (साइकोलॉजी) है।
कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन | मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ||
यह श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण श्लोक है। इसका भावार्थ यही है की संसार में हर एक घटना बहुत सारे कारणों पर निर्भर होती हैं, यह कारण कुछ एक तो स्वयं द्वारा निर्मित होते है लेकिन अधिकतर प्रकृति, देश अथवा विश्व के वातावरण और जनमानस के द्वारा निर्मित होते हैं, उन कारणों की पूर्णरूप से गणना करना असम्भव है किन्तु भावनावश हम अपने कर्म के निश्चित फल की कामना करते है (जो शायद ही कभी पूर्ण होती हो) और यहीं से समस्या शुरू होती है जिससे जीवन में चिन्ता, तनाव, कुंठा या अवसाद उत्पन्न होते हैं। जब कारण असंख्य और अनिश्चित हैं तो फल (जो भविष्य में है) निश्चित नहीं हो सकता इसलिए उसका विचार करना केवल अपनी ऊर्जा नष्ट करना है और कुछ नहीं। इस श्लोक में श्रीकृष्ण कहते हैं की कर्म पर तेरा अधिकार है उसके फल पर नहीं इसलिए भविष्य की कल्पनाओं में न जीयें केवल वर्तमान में जीने के बारे में विचार करें। इसका सबसे बड़ा लाभ यह है की जो वस्तु या सम्बन्ध वर्तमान में है उसके प्रति हम कृतज्ञ हो जाते हैं और उसके उपभोग से आनन्द प्राप्त करते हैं।
जीवन में धैर्य रखना वर्तमान में जीने का एक अनुपम उदाहरण है या यूँ कहें की वर्तमान में जीने से धैर्य रखने में बल मिलता है। जब आप वर्तमान में जीना सीख जाते हैं या केवल वर्तमान में जीने का हृदय से प्रयत्न करते हैं, तो आप पातें है की संसार में फैल रहे झूठे प्रलोभन और आश्वासन से आप मुक्त हो गए हैं और स्वयं का जीवन केवल स्वयं की जवाबदारी पर जीने लग जाते हैं, जिससे बिना किसी कारण ना तो किसी से प्रभावित होते हैं और ना तो कोई सहारा खोजते हैं। इन सबका लाभ यह होगा की आपका स्वयं पर विश्वास गहरा होता जाएगा।
वर्तमान में जीना एक कला है और इस कला को पाने के लिए अभ्यास बहुत जरुरी है। प्रतिदिन निरंतर वर्तमान में जीने का चिंतन और जो वस्तु आप के पास है या जो भी वर्तमान में परिस्थिति है उसका सर्वोत्तम उपयोग करके ही आप यह कला में निपुण हो सकते हैं और अपनी मानसिकता पर विजय पाकर सकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण रख सकते हैं।
यही कारण है की सम्पूर्ण गीता के सात सौ श्लोकों में से केवल एक श्लोक में ही मनोविज्ञान की इतनी गहरी बात श्रीकृष्ण ने कही है, जो इसे मनोविज्ञान की एक महानतम रचना बनाता है। गीता एक धर्म की पुस्तक नहीं है (यहाँ धर्म अर्थात रिलिजन या पंथ से है) बल्कि सम्पूर्ण मानव-जाति के लिए रची गयी है। जिस समय पर श्रीकृष्ण ने गीता कही थी उस समय आज की तरह मानव-जाति रिलिजन या पंथ में बटीं हुई नहीं थी बल्कि सम्पूर्ण मानव-जाति के सामाजिक व्यवहार को वैदिक दृष्टि से उपयुक्त या अनुपयुक्त ठहराया जाता था।
संसार में पहले ही सब लिखा और कहा जा चुका है लाभ तो केवल उस ज्ञान का अनुसरण कर उसके मार्ग पर चलने से होगा। अत: वैदिक मीमांसा को जानने और मानने वालों का यह कर्त्तव्य है की संसार में फैले मनोविज्ञान-विषयक इस अंधकार को दूर करने के लिए श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता के ज्ञान को जन-जन तक पहुंचायें।
Kṛṣṇa calls different names suitable to the context of the message, answers guidance, clarifications, assertions and more by suitable expressions appealing and awakening the need of the situation. Arjunā’s quest and doubts are removed saying that he will not be a killer and a sinner however. He would not be a sinner by fighting and defeating his own kith and kin even though he kills them. The names thus with which Arjunā was called by Kṛṣṇa are these: Internal evidence shows that Arjunā’s character is screened and real expectations are awakened in Him. Actually he shirked to fight gripped by Klaibya and Hrudaya-daurbalya. He got into the crisis of moha and loss of smṛti in respect of bounded duty as kśatriya.
Anagha : Pure. Sin free Arjunā is afraid that due to war fighting he would be sinner. Kṛṣṇa with this call assures he is not getting sin when he attends kśatriyadharma at that juncture.
Anasuya : Not having jealous normal.
Arjunā : White, pure clean slate ready to grasp and ready to be instructed rightful ways of action, opened for corrections.
Bharatasreshtha : Best among citizens of bharat the native land.
Bharatasattama : Strong enough among the citizens belonging to Bharat.
Bharatarshabhha : He belongs to Bharata clan and he thus Bharatas. He is best among such group of native men.
Bharata : He is native of Bharat. Here the love and commitment to the devotion of Bharat in securing the Dharma in the land. This name is used as addressal to Arjunā by Kṛṣṇa three times to awaken the rāṣtrabhakti in him.
Dehabhrtamvara : Best among all holding to the body and its nature and behavior.
Dhananjaya : Victor in the battles and bring good booty after the war to the masters of his support. A war is called as dhana samsad.
Gudakesa : Victim of the influence of the senses. Loses control over senses and emotions ordinarily.
Kapidhvaja : Having Hanuman over his flag on the top of his chariot.
Kiriti : Known for victory always the kiritas, crowns of kings are unstable when he goes to fight while his kirita remains firm, success is sure.
Kurupraveena : Best among the people of the Kuru vamśa he is best.
Kurunandana : He is the son of Pāndu of the Kuru family. He would be delight to the Kuru family. He delights the Kurus with his exploits too.
Kurusresrehtha : He is eminent among the warriors of the Kuru dynasty.
Kurusattama : Better person among the Kuru People.
Kaunteya : Son of Kunti attached by sentiments, land and family.
Mahabahu : Strong shouldered symbolic to signify the irresistible strength in his bahus that wields weapons. So he can fight long in the war with out fatigue but with success usually.
Maasucah : Pure . cf., Kṛṣṇa assuring Arjunā that he would relieve him from sinning (Aham tvaam sarvapāpebhyo mokshaishyāmi 18.66) Kṛṣṇa ensures that war and success would not defile him at all. He is agree to get reward unaffected. Only once Kṛṣṇa complements thus like the calling Arjunā as Taata.
Manada : Provider of respect to the other recognizing their honour.
Paramtapa : He severs enemies and enhances their fear and defeats them.
Pandava : Belonging to the children of Pandu raja. He takes the name of his father who ruled the land in place of his brother Dhrutarashtra.
Pārtha : He is earthly and having all ordinary human qualities known for attachment and emotions. Also means a royal person.
Purusharshabha : He is best among Purushas, the Men , the warriors.
Savyasacee : Capable of fighting in the war with both hands with equal felicity. This is unique fame to Arjunā. He reached top in that skill in war.
Taata : Boy innocent and affectionate to elders. Affectionate calling only once the name is used by Kṛṣṇa. One who does well shall never fall and be a sinner.
All these names referring Arjunā and his capabilities and eminence as recognized by Kṛṣṇa go to screw up the mood and remove dispiritedness in him. All that gripped him temporarily. It is ‘nāma mahimā’; that appeal and awakening got ignited. That quality in the individual names addressed to Arjunā reminded the commitment he had at an hour of crisis when his participation was a keynote for protecting dharma. Therefore the action depends upon the kind of addresses made to the concerned individual to wake up and give up shiredness. Lord Kṛṣṇa had done this sensitively that Arjunā realized his duty.
These names when we reflect, we realize they speak the personal and impersonal antecedents and features latent in each other. It lends scope for improvement in the respective perspectives of personalities. When Kṛṣṇa’s names are seen they are suggestive that the Lord is human and divine but committed to make the human- a human caring dharma from their ends. Actually some of the features of them look common to all. Humans are placed in different circumstances and situations in life. They are marked by their Jāti, Varṇa, Deśa, kāla and such miscellaneous occasions. Gitā containing the words of Lord Kṛṣṇa resolve and action that is warranted is activated. Need be viewed that it is a text relevant for us. There is lot of appeal to conscience and nature. Arjunā is no different from us. We are like him only always facing doubts and fears of sin and follies.
There is scope for awakening and appeal for action. We can lead a life of fulfillment in case we get chance to have a learned person to counsel us. To be modern, we may cite Vivekananda who maintained a word of awakening thus : ‘Arise, Awake , Stop not until the goal is reached’. We are the servants of Rama-Kṛṣṇa. Here Kṛṣṇa signified by work and extra skill to accomplish the validity and establishment of dharma. We are all the children of immortality (amṛtasya putras vayam). We obtain Mukti. If the yogas 17 of the Gitā are understood and practiced, viṣāda vanishes. It is true. Viṣāda is the foundation of improvement. Birth is viṣāda (sorrow).
Gitā impresses reality and facts relevant in our own day to day circumstances. We have dialogues participated by Sanjaya and Dhṛtarāśtra to begin with. Therefore Bhagavadgitā is for Action, Vidura Niti is polity and Vishnu Sahasra Nāma Stotra is for peace and Sanat Sujatīyam is for relief and Liberation. These four portions of Mahābhārata are regarded as Gems (Ratnas) of Mahābhārata. A study of the names of Kesav-Arjunās remains a source for personality awareness and progress to move to perform destined action and stand an example to world.
Bhagavadgitā is Ever Fresh. It is ocean of Guidance. It provides hope and solace for the life issues to all at all ages. Bhagavadgitā is Mother extending grace and concern over people’s duty of paying attention to Dharma. Gitā is guide for spiritual sādhanā moves and sights. Therefore, there are several expressions praising Gitā and its eternal use. But the same is not availed for benefit for many. Keeping this in View many missions and associations came up to impress the value, validity of Gitā. It is said:
Gitā has to be well followed. What else is the use of other large amount of Sāśtras. This statement has come out from the mouth of Padmanābha Kṛṣṇa who is a teacher of teachers. This supports the Eternity of the value and validity of Gitā. Thus is the talk by Kṛṣṇa while Arjuna was sole recipient of the awakening set of yogas and instructions.
Gitā is the nectar of Advaita covering eighteen chapters disdaining
the material comfort only and the incidence of rebirth.
Wholly knowledge of yogas has come out to answer the Arjuna viśāda yoga. At chapter one, Arjuna expresses his fear of
sin and so refused to fight. But Kṛṣṇa comes up with Karma, Bhakti and Jñana yogas to instill courage and clear the doubts in him. He even
risked showing his Universal form when doubts and unfaith in talk lurked in the
mind of Arjuna. While this famous dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna there are
addresals to Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna done by each mutually. That would be our enough effort
to draw message and appeal hidden in them. At the same time awaken the sense of
duty and right for execution. Kṛṣṇa says:
‘samvādamāvayoh jnāna yajñena’
Sanjaya said as he remembered the dialogue, he gets elated and happy. Further the dialogue is ‘adbhutaṁ’, ‘roma harshanaṁ’, ‘param guhyaṁ’ and ‘punyaṁ’. Sanjaya terms it as: one emerging out of significant dialogue of Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna and adds that he felt elated very much (18.75). The same could be experience to anyone who followed the dialogue with diligence.
Let us enlist the names with which Arjuna called Kṛṣṇa at first. It is interesting to note that Acyuta is the constant address to open dialogue and conclude the dialogue. In 18th chapter of the Gitā, Kṛṣṇa is Hṛṣīkeśa althrough while Arjuna is ‘Pārtha’ and Gudākeśa just to differentiate the difference between the Narāyana and Nara, the Arjuna. They mean just opposites namely Kṛṣṇa has control of senses while Arjuna is with in the grip of senses. So only the introductory stanza goes thus: saying that Narāyan imparts the teachings to Pārtha at the crisis. This is knit together by Vyāsa, the Purana Muni in the mid point of the body of Mahābharata. The teaching amounts to Advaita and it is amṛta showered on the ambiguous mind of Arjuna. The amṛta-varśa dispelled the doubts and suspicions and superstitions from the mind of Arjuna. Arjuna is made very happy forgetting his mental status touched when Kṛṣṇa showed him the viśvarupadarśana (the universal Form imbibing any and everything of the creation), the final mode of solving the lurking rather impeding confusion in the mind. It is to clear the Vimudhatva in Arjuna who is liable for change and understanding resulting in right action. Kṛṣṇa said ‘Act as you please’
‘yathecchasi tathā kuru’
The decision was he was made to get rid of the cowardice, diffidence and moha. He got the light of truth and the real memory of Jāti and Kula Dharma became activated. He considered that he would not be sinner when Kṛṣṇa has done what he has to do in reality. It is to the show of the world outside. In essence the dialogue gave rise to appeal and awakening on either side to ignite right action. War was only solution for Kṣatriyas to resolve the Dharma. It is so because the ruling goes yato dharmah tato jayah(Mahābhārata). Success is always inclined at the reach of Dharma. Kṛṣṇa’s target was Dharma-samsthāpanānamely to establish Dharma only however. Lord Viṣṇu descends to set right the Right.
The names of Kṛṣṇa with which Arjuna addressed Kṛṣṇa look very
suggestive of his nature and powers. They stand to appeal to the Lord to guide
him relevantly. He is seen looking at Kṛṣṇa
in many angles, forms and ultimately as friend and God. In like manner, Kṛṣṇa
too looked upon Arjuna as a capable hero but disturbed momentarily at the sight
of the opposite Army that contained his kith and kin too. Basically Arjuna was gripped
by emotions and sentimental feelings.. That was a matter of viṣāda in him.
Now the respective names of Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna are taken to discussion
The meanings of the names get understood relevant to the addressals done by each other. It is the ‘nāma mahimā’ that kindles the sense of appeal and awakening. Besides that the personality traits, build of character and suitable action are suggested. The way name is called out supports the action warranted thereafter. Arjuna is looked upon more times as Pārtha meaning quite, materialistic and terrestrial. He seemed to be elevated to the sense of duty at that critical juncture as a warrior best and care for the duty of a kṣatriya.
Acyuta: this is the standard name to Kṛṣṇa at all times, meaning he never shakes nor looses courage and confidence. It is derived thus: ‘na cyutih, nasah yasya sah acyutah. In other words, all others in the creation are liable for ruin and disappearance. It is ‘cyuti’ meaning nasa. Finally Arjuna calls him Acyuta. Assenting to the appeal by Kṛṣṇa to war. He said ‘Naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtirlabdhā tvatprasādānmayācyuta’ (18.73). All the way memory and extra love sentimental bothered Arjun althrough.
Ananta : Infinite. All in all, endless.
Apratima Prabhava : Matchless, valor and influence. Unfailing in plans and desires.
Arisudana : victor over enemies. Slays wicked enemies.
Adyah : He is erstwhile in existence before anyone. Kṛṣṇa is God who exits before anything came into the being.
Bhagavān : means possessor of all that characterizes of Bhaga. Bhaga implies ability in the features like creation, destruction etc. that belong to people and nature.
Bhutabhavanah : He thinks of the beings and attests their thinking and connectedly supportive.
Bhutesah : He is the leader of all beings irrespective the category known.
Devadeva : the leader of such Brilliant gods (the Viṣṇu). In a feeling of over joy Arjuna calls Kṛṣṇa at a stretch with several names especially when Kṛṣṇa showed his universal form (viśvarupa).
Devavarah : well elected and best of all the brilliant people like bright righteous people, gods etc.
Devesa : the commander of workers to make the good to happen.
Govinda : He makes the land and people happy. He is the custodian of Knowledge and Happiness.
Hṛṣīkeśa : Who has hold on Indriyas. They never drop down. They remain standardized and never swerving in the circumstances. Indriyanigraha is a great feat but it is natural to him.
Janārdana : means Protector of people indifferent to their differences and distinctions like sun and Moon. Janārdana is everybody’s protector. So, Arjuna calls Kṛṣṇa at right situation. Kṛṣṇa was promoting war with the Kauravas and kill them. As Janārdana it is sin prompting him to do pāpakarma. It was the suggestion to Kṛṣṇa when he called him thus.
Jagannivasa : though he is elsewhere fixed, he is not away from the creation and situations. Involved in the crisis and solution of the orders.
Jagatpate : He is lord of Jagat the combination of mobile and immobile objects in creation. He is inseparable and identical with all.
Kamala Patraksha : his eyes are beautiful as beautiful as the lotus flower. Here the looks are pleasant and attractive that fear is dispelled at his sight.
Kṛṣṇa : He is the Attractor ‘aa karshati iti Kṛṣṇah’ He pulls attention of all towards him.
Kesava : connected to creation that comes out of Water. No creation is possible without water, the divine support. The first appearance of the Lord is in waters lying in restful state.
Kesinishudana : He killed another demon by name Kesi and this demon was a special kind of rākṣasa but a bhakta. His name he took in is fame.
Madhusudana : ‘Madhu’ is a Demon by name. The slayer of that demon is Kṛṣṇa. A queller of Evil and Negativity.
Mahabaaho : Strong shoulders meaning skilled in war and courage to face any inimical person or circumstances.
Mahatmā : Great soul able to get elevated outlook of his own self.
Paramesvara : There are many overlords, the leader and monitor of all of them to keep the work well organized.
Purushotthama : He is Puruṣa, one with the creation but ranks always high. Looked upon by people for help and suggestion. In Puruṣa sukta of RV Narāyana is Puruṣa.
Prabhu : He is one controlled by himself over his own being and actions.
Sarvesah : He is monitor of any and everything in the creation.
Sahasra bāhu : His strength is number with the thousand shoulders, hands. It bespeaks his war skill and never failing in exerting physical strength. Bahu is symbolic of power and potency.
Yādava : He belongs to the Yādava community, which is known for service to society.
Yogeśvarah : The teacher and mentor of Yoga that joins the individual to make him enhanced of powers and hope.
Varsheya : He belongs to the clan of Vrushni and it a natural identity to him as he is mānava avatara too besides divine inset in his personality.
Vāsudeva : Son of Vāsudeva.
Viśvamurti : He is figure of all. All forms are his own. He is in everybody.
Viśvesvara : He is overlord of the Universe and every object.
Viṣṇu : He is present any and everywhere all the three times.
Yogi : Focused person a Disciplinarian.
In all these names we notice the mention of power and ability and vested capacity in Kṛṣṇa that He would be good Guide par excellence. Further the names have special intonation with reference to his talk made to arjuna and arjuna responding in dialogue.
Declaring International Day for Yoga is a great tribute to the seers and sages of India who propounded the Yoga Discipline.
The literal meaning of the word ‘Yoga’ is union. Union of what? Answer to this question has been given by renowned commentator on Yoga Darśana Yajñyavalkya: Samyogo Yoga Ity Ukto Jivātma-Paramātmanoriti, i.e., Yoga is the union of Soul and God. There is a divine spark in all of us and that, because of ignorance, we are not aware of it and, hence, the advice is to know ourselves. And that can be done only through Yoga. God being present everywhere is present in our souls too and can be discerned there directly.
Thus, Yoga and its purpose defined by
many seers, scholars, philosophers-
Gita offers a secular definition of
योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्
Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam
i.e., Yoga is perfection in action.
By controlling the thought currents of one’s mind, one attains deep
concentration on any subject matter and, thereby, attains complete knowledge of
the matter pondered over.
Sage Patanjali in his Yoga-Sūtra said :
Yogah Chitta Vritti Nirodhah
i.e controlling the modifications /
thought currents of mind is Yoga. It is a holistic system having both
physical and psychological traits.
Philosopher Allie M. Frazier has also
‘The purpose of Yoga is to unite man with the Divine Ground, with the Cosmic Consciousness. Yoga is the psychological linking of the mind to the super-ordinated principle ‘by which the mind knows’.
Every human being possesses three things – Body, Mind and Soul (Spirit). Yoga aims at the composite development of human personality — physical, mental and spiritual. The Vedas and the Upaniśads advise ‘Ᾱtmānam Vidhi’, i.e., Know Thyself.
आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तु।
(कठोपनिषद्, अध्याय १, वल्ली ३, मंत्र ३)
To know oneself, one has to concentrate
deeper inside. Performing Yoga-Ᾱsanas is not just a way to physical fitness but
also helps in deliberating deeper essence of his/her body. Out of 84 Ᾱsanas of
Hatha-Yoga, two are very prominent and effective — Shirṣa-Ᾱsana and Sūrya-Namaskār
The Sūrya Namaskār Ᾱsana energises
the whole body, it wards off many diseases related to the spine, stomach,
thyroid gland, arthritis, et al. It is, therefore, recommended that this Ᾱsana
must be learnt and performed by all the practitioners of Yoga.
It is unfortunate that the Yoga
Capsule devised by the Ministry of Ayush for the International Day of Yoga
Celebrations, Sūrya Namaskār Ᾱsana has been excluded, whereas, in many
countries, it forms a prominent part of the Yoga Demonstration on this day
celebrated by almost all the countries in the world.
The word ‘Sūrya’ in the Sūrya
Namsakar does not mean Sun, but God.
सूर्यो वै सर्वे देवा:।
(शतपथ ब्राह्मण १३.७.१.५)
In the Vedas Indra, Varun, Sūrya, et
al, are all the names of God and he (Sun) is worthy of being bowed to by
all. Brāhmaṇas of Yajurveda narrated various references where Sūrya is said to be ‘द्वादश’.
(तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण १.५.३.४; शतपथ ब्राह्मण ११.६.३.५)
विष्णुर्धाता भग: पूषा मित्रेन्द्रौ वरुणोऽर्यमा….॥
सूर्य (आदित्य) के बारह नाम – विष्णु, धाता, भग, पूषा, मित्र, इन्द्र, वरुण, अर्यमा, विवस्वान्, अंशुमान्, त्वष्टा, और पर्जन्य।
To avoid the controversy over Sūrya Namaskār Ᾱsana, a humble suggestion is that it be renamed as Iśa Namaskār Ᾱsana as Sūrya here means God.
Prof. Max Muller’s following words in ‘India: What Can It Teach Us’ are worthy of attention:
“They were all meant to express the Beyond, the Invisible behind the Visible, the Infinite within the Finite, the Supernatural above the Natural, the Divine, Omnipresent, Omnipotent.”
It is not only the Vedas, but many
religions, philosophers and scholars declare God as the Soul of the
All are but parts of (the Universe is) one stupendous Whole
The article “Democracy
turns into DemoNOcracy!!” authored by Prof. Bal Ram Singh published on 22nd
May, 2019. The title itself of the article said a lot about Prof. Singh’s view.
According to Singh the purpose of the piece was not exactly to provide road map
and solutions, rather raise the consciousness of intellectuals towards the
problem. Therefore, VedicWAVES blog sought response from the readers of the
Readers were requested to
consider the following questions:
1. Whether readers are agree with the
2. What maybe the reason?
3. What can be done from Vedic view?
Below are the short responses received –
Prof. Girish Nath Jha, Dean, School of Sanskrit and Indic Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi
Agree with your
observation. In fact, just yesterday I was wondering [if] someone [had] compiled
all the invectives used in this election. It would be a good linguistics resource
The reason why politicians
are using these into quickly to hone their message in a very short time. The
audience would perhaps remember these more than plain talk.
The Vedic way of
sound democratic ways is not possible today. The closest that we can go would
be to promote leadership with Tyāga and
general wellbeing of others as the guiding principles.
Dr. Pandita Indrani Rampersad, Trinidad and Tobago
I agree for a code of ethics for politicians on the campaign trail. Leaders should show restraint in speech and conduct. I found nothing wrong with the ‘termite’ metaphor because of what a termite does – it works silently from within and before you know it, your entire house falls down like a pack of cards. It is an appropriate metaphor for campaign rhetoric.
Political speech is not in the realm of religious or academic discourse. There is the element of ‘warring opponents’ – nothing wrong with that. However, while being feisty, the campaign rhetoric should aim not to injure and hurt the personhood of the ‘other’ – stick to the issues not personalities. The subtle, artistic, bringing down of your opponent with words is to be enjoyed as the art of debating. It should not descend into ridicule and slander.
Sumit Ganguly’s analysis is from a leftist perspective and nationalism for these folks is not a welcome concept. I disagree with their consistent recourse to demonization of minorities. It’s simply not true. Minorities in India have greater privileges and protections than many other parts of the world and are used by leftist activists seeking favours in foreign countries. Uplift of the economically disadvantaged is more pressing than identity politics in India. Chandra Bhan Prasad’s comment is puerile.
Criminalization in Indian politics is a real issue. Remove goondas and corruption.
India needs a vision to manage its great diversity and the socio-economic and spiritual development of its citizens. India is the spiritual capital of the world. A return to the principles of Rām Rājya is mandatory. Let the state provide the social and economic conditions for development so that people may actualize their highest goals of spirituality.
India has to be constantly vigilant about external cultural, economic and political forces that see it citizens as ideal consumers. India has to be constantly vigilant about the constant threat to its sovereignty, for near and far, especially its neighbours.
Dr. Raju Chidambaram, USA
Democracy is a basically good
concept, perhaps the second best one can have other than a Rāmraj led by a dhārmic monarch.
The problem is the Party system that
plagues all democracies. Cooperation (the Yajña spirit of Gīta) needed for
progress is not possible in a party-based democracy.
How do we enforce parties to
cooperate? Every two years in the US the election should be about the entire
House of Representatives. Instead of choosing individuals, the people should
decide “Has the House worked for the people in the last 2 years? If so, all of
them return for the next 2 years. If not none of them will be allowed to run
for re-election and every seat filled with a new comer”. Drastic idea, maybe,
but it might force all representatives to cooperate for the good of the country
in order to stay elected.
Sh.Rishi Pal Chauhan, Jiva Institute, Faridabad.
I agree with your
observations. Earlier social workers used to join politics. They not only used
to understand the culture of the nation but lived that in their day to day life.
Their life was for nation.
In seventies people
started keeping muscle man. In eighties muscle man started join politics. Now
people with money power and criminal record join politics.
There should be
basic qualification for a politician. He should submit his achievement about
the knowledge of the culture of India and the record of social work practically
achieved in his constituency He should submit his individual plan for five
years. There should be review of his work after every year. He or she did not
achieve as per the satisfaction of people he should get grading. There should
be basic qualification of voter also.
Sh. Lallan Prasad Pandey, Former Income Tax Officer, Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Yes I agree
with the observations made in the write up, given above.
I think that people
see the power politics an opportunity to make money and enjoy power as this was
of India has provisions and institutions for check and balance. But now a days
there needs to come forward the learned and right thinking people to observe
the conduct of Parliamentarians and issue public warnings of their
observations. Some proper learning courses may be conducted for new members.
डा राजकुमारी त्रिखा, पूर्व अध्यापिका, संस्कृत, मैत्रेयी महाविद्यालय, दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय, दिल्ली
डॉक्टर बलराम सिंह ने बहुत सुंदर विश्लेषण करके भारतीय राजनीति की तस्वीर प्रस्तुत की है। यह सच है कि हमारे राजनेताओं ने इलेक्शन के दौरान अनेक प्रकार के आरोप-प्रत्यारोप एक दूसरे पर लगाए, जो कि हमारी संस्कृति और नैतिकता के विरुद्ध है ।
जहां तक अभिव्यक्ति की स्वतंत्रता का प्रश्न है , कुछ बोलने से पहले यह सोचना जरूरी है कि हमारी बातें नैतिकता के विरूद्ध न हों। हमें अपनी डेमोक्रेसी को डेमोनोक्रेसी बनने से रोकना होगा, जो कि गिरते हुए नैतिक स्तर के कारण लगभग असंभव सा लगता है। भ्रष्टाचार में आकंठ डूबी अधिकांश जनता और भ्रष्ट विरोधी पार्टियों से भरे हुए देश में डेमोक्रेसी फेल है। यहां तो समुचित और त्वरित दंड व्यवस्था, और सीमित राजतंत्र वाली ऐसी शासन पद्धति होनी चाहिये जैसी महाभारत में बताई गई है। वहां मंत्रिमंडल का कार्य था राज्य के हित को देखते हुए कानून, नियम बनाना और राजा का कार्य था उन कानूनों और नियमों को जनता में सख्ती से लागू करना। कानून के विरुद्ध आचरण करनेवाले को अपराधानुकूल निष्पक्ष दण्ड देना। यदि राजा अपने इस कार्य में असफल होता था, तो उसे गति सिंहासन से उतारा भी जा सकता था। यही उचित राजधर्म है। महाभारत में इसी व्यवस्था को आदर्श शासन पद्धति कहा गया है। परंतु दुख की बात है कि भ्रष्टाचारी जनता और विरोधी पार्टियों के रहते हुए इस तरह का परिवर्तन संभव प्रतीत नहीं होता। फिर भी ईश्वर से प्रार्थना है कि वह हमारे नेताओं को सद्बुद्धि दे और भारत को नैतिक दृष्टि से भी समृद्ध राष्ट्र बनायें।
Prof. R.P. Singh, Professor, Philosophy, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi
In Vedas, Asuras
were not demonized. Demonization started in the Purānas and Epics. Since then
it has been happening in one way or another. Britishers were called as mylekshas
(म्लेच्छ). There is a lack
public morality and predominance of civil society over the State. It will give
rise to the State to become authoritative. I appreciate the paper through and
First of all Sir, the content is mind
blowing and is the true scene of our prevailing so called democracy. I truly
agree with it. There’s no more the taste of democracy, instead every leader now
just puts each other’s name down which really gives a bad impression to
According to me the reason is
selfishness of political leaders. Now what has become the point that everyone
somehow or the other just wants the rule …politicians instead of serving
nation, they have developed the mentality of serving their pockets. Development
has become a faraway point. They just put each other’s name down to move ahead.
Lastly, according to me as in each n
every competition certain education is necessary, likewise it should be made
mandatory for politicians as well to be qualified because its education which
can mentality and bring in good leaders to the show!!
Sh.Yogendra Bhardwaj, Research Scholar, Sanskrit, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi
Nice thought by you (Prof.Singh)
राजनीति में मतभेद होना संभव है, किन्तु मतभेद नहीं होना चाहिए। भारतीय संस्कृति में राजनीति के अंतर्गत ऐसी नीतियों के निर्धारण का मार्ग प्रशस्त होता है, जिसका अंतिम लक्ष्य “लोककल्याण” होता है।
Ms.Ami Shah, Corporate Legal Expert, Mumbai
Yes totally agree with the
observation… The demon of politics is clearly visible now… The status has
gone down significantly.
Today the scenario is such that they
want to win at any cost. Losing is not am option as their fake reputation is at
stake and for that they can go to any extent even if they gave to lose your
moral values. They attack at personal levels… They attack your family and
your morals. They attack at your weakest links. It has become a battle with no
rules, just win at any cost.
In my opinion the best way to improve the practice of democracy is to conduct elections every five year plus conducting voting out every year… This will be an added responsibility and fear of getting removed in the minds of those who are elected. They won’t take their positions for granted. Introducing e-voting system to implement this. Apart from this education is a must to improve the practice of democracy.
The responders are
unanimous in holding politicians responsible for the deterioration of the
discourse of democracy to demonocracy. The reasons range from selfishness, no
rules of engagements, criminalization of the politics, lack of public morality,
power politics and money, party-based democracy, and expedient short term
It is interesting that most of the readers feel that there should be some level of accountability and a provision to recall and/or the elected representatives for lack of progress on promises made. Education and training of politicians are needed, and perhaps principles of sacrifice for public good, following dhārmicprinciples need to be introduced and encouraged. The concept of Rāmrajya needs to be invoked.
We feel intellectuals
and policy makers need to look at the history of governance in India for
inspiration of a system that can serve India’s diverse population without
creating acrimony and divisiveness currently being practiced. It is important
to be willing to storm out of a system that is becoming detrimental to the
While I was studying Varāh Mihir’s “Brihat Samhitā” and participating in the exercise of validation of his Rain conception and Rain Delivery (RCRD) theory for Monsoon -2016; the basis of Yajña concept being incorporated in some of the Indian Festivals came to my mind as a realisation. I have been thinking about it ever since the publication of the report about this validation exercise in Asian Agri-History Journal 2018 Vol.22 (2), the International Quarterly Journal of Asian Agri- History Foundation. My association with late Ashwamedhayaji Shri Nanaji Kale for validation of Suvrushti Project and RCRD Theory for Monsoon 2016, was a wonderful experience for me; particularly for understanding the greatness of our Ṛśis in theorizing their observations of nature, environment, atmospheric order and the Cosmological System consisting of Sun, Moon, Planets and Nakṣatras. One marvels at the wisdom and expertise in interweaving these theories in social and cultural life for the common benefit of mankind.
All of us are familiar with the Indian Monsoon. The word Monsoon has its origin in Arabic word, ‘Mausam’ which means ‘season’. The word which was originally referred to wind reversals in the Arabian sea, has come to mean the whole range of the phenomena associated with the annual weather cycles in tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Australia and Africa. Therefore, the study of Monsoon weather patterns is of great importance for every Indian farmer, every student of Environmental Science and for that matter every Indian citizen, because Monsoon is the life-line of India. According to world climate patterns and regional geography of Asia and India, Monsoon climate patterns are characterized by large scale seasonal reversals of winds, giving very distinct seasons, ’Summer’ and ‘Winter’. In summer moist air is carried northwards from the Indian Ocean over the Indian sub-continent bringing rains. In winter, cool dry weather is carried southwards. Thus, the year gets divided into wet and dry seasons. In addition a short North-East Monsoon affects the south-east coastal states of India due to winds bringing moisture from Bay of Bengal. The Summer Monsoon arrives in southern India in late May or early June and gradually advances northwards and westwards reaching Jammu-Kashmir, Pakistan by early July. It begins to retreat from north western regions and Pakistan by September and withdraws from south India by November. This pattern of advancement and withdrawal gives Indian sub-continent its characteristic seasonal rainfall pattern which is called Indian Monsoon.
Our great Ṛśis and seers during Vedic Period and Post Vedic Period had studied these weather patterns and encapsulated their findings in scriptures like , “ Brihat Samhitā“ of Varāh Mihir, “Arthaśastra“ of Kautilya and “Kṛśi Parashar“ of Parashar. In addition to these examples of the Science of Rainfall Prediction and Rain Conception Signals, there are many ancient texts of Astrometerology of Vedic traditions like –Parashar Samhitā, Garg Samhitā, Kashyap Samhitā, Maghmala Samhitā, Narad Samhitā etc. which have been mentioned in the reports/ books published by Shri Yogiraj Ved Vidnyan Aśram, Barshi, Dist. Solapur Maharashtra, (Vedaśram) founded by late Ashwamedhayaji Shri Nanaji Kale mentioned above. Vedaśram carried out various experiments of, Suvrushti Projects and Validation of Varāh Mihir’s RCRD Theory by performing Somyāgas, Parjanya Yāgas for establishing scientifically the relationship between Yajñas, Agriculture, Environment and Rainfall.
Varāh Mihir’s Theory of Rain Conception and Rain Delivery ( RCRD):
Varāh Mihir in his, “Brihat Samhitā” gives his theory of Vṛśṭi Garbhadhārana (Rain conception) and Vṛśṭi Prasav (Rain delivery). Chapters 21 to 28 of this book are devoted to this subject-matter. Before laying down his theory, Varāh Mihir explains the importance of the knowledge of Rainfall Prediction, Rain Conception Signals and Rain Delivery at the beginning of chapter 21 entitled “Garbh Lakṣaṇam” (Pregnancy of clouds) in the first verse as follows:
Annam Jagataḥ Prāṇāḥ Prāvṛṭkālasya Chānnamāyattam I
Yasmādataḥ Parīkṣyaḥ Prāvṛṭkālaḥ Prayatnen II1II
It means that as the food is
life-giving and life-sustaining force to all living beings and the food is
dependent on rainfall (Monsoon) it should be observed, investigated and studied
carefully. In India only 35% of the cultivated land is an irrigated land, which
means that almost 65% is rain-fed area, which is entirely dependent upon
Monsoon. Hence farmer’s knowledge about Rain Conception Signals and Rainfall
Prediction is of great significance.
Mārgśiraḥ Sitpakṣapratipatbhṛti Kṣapākareāṣāḍhām I
Pūrvā Vā Samupagate Garbhāṇāṁ Lakṣaṇaṁ Jñeyam II 6 II
The symptoms of pregnancy of clouds
are to be detected / observed when Moon transits Purvāśāḍha asterism commencing from the first day of Mārgaśirsya. Varāh Mihir’s prime RCRD Theory is stated in verse 7 :
Yannakṣatramupagate Garbhaśchandre Bhāvetsa Chandravaśāt I
Panchanavate Dinśate Tatraiva Prasavmāyāti II7II
The rain-foetus formed during the Moon stay in a particular asterism (Nakṣatra) will be born 195 days (192 calendar days + or – one day ) later at the time when the Moon will be again in the same asterism according to the laws of her revolution (Moon Cycle). Thus, the RCRD Theory of Varāh Mihir in simple words is that rain conception takes place during dry period (Mārgaśir to Chaitra).The rain conception signals can be observed from the first day of Mārgaśir till Chaitra Māsa. The rain-foetus conceived during this period will give rain delivery after the gestation period of 195 days (approx. six and half months later) at the time of same asterism when the foetus was conceived. The various rain conception signals to be observed are given in other verses and depending on the rain conception signals observed the rain delivery after the gestation period of 195 days can be predicted . One can prepare a local calendar of rainfall prediction and validate the same with actual rainfall on those days. A farmer can plan his agricultural operations based on this local Agro-climatic calendar.
The relationship of Yajña with Agriculture and Environment :
When one reads the RCRD
Theory of Varāh Mihir along with the gospel truth given in BhagavadagītāChapter 3 Śloka 14:
Yajñāt Bhavanti Bhutāni Parjyanyāḥ Yajñaḥ Karmasamudbhavaḥ II3.14 II
One leads to logical conclusion that Yajñas be performed during the
dry period to facilitate rain conception and rain-foetus nourishment during the
gestation period. This very concept has been incorporated in our festivals
which are based on Yajña/ Havans starting
from Durgā Navrātri in Aświn to Rāma Navmī in Chaitra and Akṣaya-Tṛtīyā in Vaiśākha. The deities worshipped
are Ādi Śakti, Puruśa, Śiva, Agnī and Surya and the offerings are preparations of cereals and pulses of
newly harvested crops. Our Ṛśis have interwoven these festivals which are based on ’Suryōpasana’ and ‘Agniupasana’ in our cultural system for
celebration / participation by masses.
(to be continued…..)
–Sh. Anand Gaikwad, Krishi Bhushan Sendriya Sheti M. S. & Retd. Executive Director/Company Secretary
Looking at the present state of affairs in India, the birthplace of Gandhi, one would probably surmise that Gandhism, whatever the term may mean, cannot have any relevance in this twenty-first century. Gandhi is rightly called the Father of the Nation because he single handedly stood up against the mighty British Empire, without any arms, and brought her independence. However, today, Gandhi is mostly forgotten and his relevance questioned even by his ardent devotees. Today Gandhi is remembered in India mostly on his birthday which is celebrated as a national holiday rather as a ritual.
As a matter of fact, India is not following any of Gandhi’s teachings which are mostly confined to text books. In fact, since independence, the country has witnessed many violent communal riots in this multi communal country. Gandhi’s message of ‘swābalambī’, self-sufficiency with home spun ‘khādī’ cloth is not used now-a-days even as a social slogan. Statistics shows that the country is definitely not following ‘sarvodaya’, a broad Gandhian term meaning ‘universal upliftment’ or ‘progress of all’ reaching the masses. On the contrary, India today has the unique distinction of being the only country in the world which has the richest man in the world while at the same time more than 30 per cent of its population lives in dire poverty.
The above shows that today, Gandhism is a very confused ‘ism’ in India. Today many politicians in India use the term merely as a slogan and the common man make Gandhi almost out of reach of the younger groups by making Gandhi an unwilling ‘avatāra’. That may be one reason why the only photo we see of Gandhi in India is always that of an old man which brings the image of a very simple and pious man who was meek and mild like Jesus Christ. While Gandhi was not a simple man to say the least, the above does not gives the right image of Gandhi and does not bring any inspiration to the younger group, the group most relevant for Gandhi.
But Mahatma Gandhi, in this twentieth century, produced a very sophisticated approach because he implemented that very noble philosophy of ahimsā in modern politics, and he succeeded. That is a very great thing.”
And that is precisely the greatness of Gandhi and that is the message of Gandhi to the modern world. In the past century many places in the world have been drastically changed through the use of brute force, by the power of guns the Soviet Union, China, Tibet, Burma, many communist countries in Africa and South America. But eventually the power of guns will have to be changed by the will of the ordinary people. If we try to analyze the secrets of Gandhi’s success, we would probably find Faith and Action and Populism, the three most important aspects of his life. Gandhi’s extra ordinary communion with the masses of ordinary people was another of his secrets. In contrast to many of our present day leaders of this highly democratic world, Gandhi was a true leader and friend of the people. Disaku Ikeda, the Japanese Buddhist leader who takes great inspiration from Gandhi has this to say about him. “His activism is not mere action but contains many aspects of a spiritual ‘practice’that is inspired by the inner urging of the conscience”.
The phenomenal success Gandhi registered in far-away South Africa fighting for human rights and civil liberties has great significance when we find that later his teachings were adopted not only by Nelson Mandela, the South African freedom fighter, but it was also subsequently revealed that the former South African president De Klerk was greatly influenced by Gandhi’s principles. In fact, from Dalai Lama to Desmond Tutu and from Martin Luther King to Nelson Mandela, many world leaders were inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, all in their own different ways.
Gandhi left many valuable sayings for the modern man to fight for goodness in society in a non-violent way. “Good” Gandhi said “travels at a snail’s pace.” “Non-violence” Gandhi said “is a tree of slow growth. It grows imperceptibly but surely.” And then “Mere goodness is not of much use.” Gandhi stated. “Goodness must be joined with knowledge, courage and conviction. One must cultivate the fine discriminating quality which goes with spiritual courage and character.” The modern man can also take great wisdom from what Gandhi said the seven social sins: Politics without principles; Wealth without work; Commerce without morality; Education without character; Pleasure without conscience; Science without humanity; Worship without sacrifice.
It was the unique non-violent movement under his leadership that earned for India freedom from the colonial rule. In spearheading the campaign against the alien rule, Gandhiji adopted the innovative techniques of civil disobedience and social transformation, which had several exemplary features.
The Gandhian technique of mobilizing people has been successfully employed by many oppressed societies around the world under the leadership of people like Martin Luther King in the United States, Nelson Mandela in South Africa, and now Aung Saan Sun Kyi in Myanmar, which is an eloquent testimony to the continuing relevance of Mahatma Gandhi.
In India, economic development has been mostly confined to the urban conglomerates. In the process, the rural India that comprises 700 million people has been given short shrift. Gandhiji’s philosophy of inclusive growth is fundamental to the building of a resurgent rural India. He believed in “production by the masses” rather than in mass production, a distinctive feature of the industrial revolution. It is surprising, even paradoxical, that these days Gandhian philosophy should find increasing expression through the most modern technology! Now, it is possible to establish small-scale and medium-scale factories in smaller towns and remote corners of the country, thanks to the phenomenal innovations in communication and information technologies. New technologies have brought in widespread and low-cost electronic connectivity that enables instantaneous contact between industrial units and the sellers and consumers of their products. Location and logistics are no more a limitation or constraint for industrial development.
If we say that the twenty-first century is the century of the common man, then we see that Gandhism has even more relevance in this age, and Gandhi will inspire generations of individuals fighting for goodness of the society. If today we find that Gandhism is in severe test in countries like India, it is not because there is certain inherent weakness in Gandhism, but it is because we have not seen in India strong leaders with the required courage and conviction to fight the evils in society. We may borrow Gandhi’s own words on Ahimsā, and say that Gandhism is only for the courageous people.
-Dr. Anju Seth, Associate Professor, Department of Sanskrit, Satyawati College (Day), University of Delhi, Delhi, India