Bases of Dharma in the Gita

– Dr. Shakuntala

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(Source of Image: http://zeenews.india.com/entertainment/and-more/what-bhagavad-gita-teaches-us-top-10-lessons-we-must-remember_1849199.html)

The Gita, through Krishna declares a two-fold bases of dharmaSamkhya or reason and yoga or discipline – “In this world a two-fold basis (of dharma) has been declared by Me of old, blameless one: By the discipline of knowledge of the followers of reason-method and by the discipline of action of the followers of discipline method” (III.3). But before we try to understand reason with discipline of knowledge or jñana-yoga and discipline with discipline of action or karmayoga, we need to appreciate the fact that the term ‘discipline’ is used in two senses in the Gita. One of course is the basis of dharma. The other is defined by the Gita through Krishna as indifference: “discipline is defined as indifference” (II.48). We can take it that it is discipline in the latter sense, that is, in the senses of indifference that is used when the Gita is talking about discipline of knowledge and discipline of action. In other words, it appears that whether we are followers of reason or followers of discipline, discipline in the sense of indifference is a necessary feature of it.

In the Gita, Discipline (basis of religion) appears to be, on one hand, renunciation and, on the other hand, non-attachment: “For when not to objects of sense nor to actions he is attached, renouncing all purpose, then he is said to have mounted to discipline” (VI.4). That is, if we want to understand discipline, then we need to understand what renunciation and non-attachment mean in the Gita. Renunciation in the Gita comes forth as renunciation of actions of desire (XVIII.2). Further, in the Gita, he is recognized as renouncing action who does not ‘loathe or crave’ which is also termed as being free from pairs of opposite (V.3). But if this is renunciation, it appears that it is non-different from what the Gita calls as discipline of mind or buddhi-yoga. In its discussion on discipline of mind, the Gita says about longing and loathing that “one must not come under control of those two, for they are his two enemies” (III.34). But this is how renunciation is understood in the Gita. Again, it says that “Whom all desires enter in that same way he attains peace; not the man who lusts after desires” (II.70). This can be understood as meaning that who is nor driven to act by desire goes to peace. And this is the way renunciation has been defined – giving up acts of desire. Further, this renunciation is also discipline in the sense of indifference: “Content with getting what comes by chance, passed beyond the pairs (of opposites), free from jealousy, indifferent to success and failure, even acting he is not bound” (IV.22).

Discipline, however, in the Gita also means non-attachment. The actions that the Gita has asked one to perform without attachment to fruits are actions of worship, gift, austerity (XVIII.5) as well as natural born action of the individual (XVIII.48). Worship is another kind of action the Gita says one should perform (IV.23). The Gita suggests that if one performs actions without attachment to the fruit of action, one does not get bound (III.7). In fact Krishna tells of himself that he is not bound even though he keeps performing actions because he is not interested in fruits of actions: “Actions do not stain Me, (because) I have no yearning for the fruits of actions. Who comprehends Me thus is not bound by actions” (IV.14). Such actions do not bind because in truth they do not bear fruits, though performed they are barren (IV.20). In other words, it appears that according to the Gita, it is the mental attitude that binds and not mere action.

Of the two elements of discipline, if they can be termed as such, renunciation and non-attachment to fruits of action, the Gita shows its certain inclination towards the latter (V.2). The reason for this can be explained in the following way: renunciation is more an attitude than performance of action. Giving up certain action by itself cannot be called action – at least in the sense of performance. Renunciation is giving up acts of desire. But non-attachment involves performing of certain kinds of actions without attachment to fruits of action. In other words, in the latter case one gives up certain action but goes on performing the required kinds of actions. That is, non-attachment involves both giving up action as well as performance of certain sort of actions while renunciation does not imply performance of action.

Of the ‘two-fold basis’ of the world, the Gita declares reason as one of them. Reason in the Gita comes forth as understanding of the nature of the soul. When Arjuna asks Krishna regarding a way for right conduct, Krishna answer tells of the right way as suggested by reason. The way, as we find it, involves a description of soul’s nature: “He is not born, nor does he ever die; nor, having come to be, will he ever more come not to be. Unborn, eternal, everlasting, this ancient one is not slain when the body is slain” (II.20). Further, it is said that the soul in reality does not feel pleasure and pain. Whatever feeling of pleasure and pain the embodied being feels is due to its contact with matter (II.14). Thus on one hand, the Gita tells that the soul actually does not feel pleasure and pain and on the other hand, that they belong to matter. Reason, according to Gita, thus lies in understanding that pain, pleasure etc are not felt by soul but belong to matter. Likewise, the Gita also tells that according to reason, action does not belong to the soul, but to matter. Having said this, the Gita says that the one who understands reality in true nature – that the immortal does not in actuality feel or perform – in reality he does not perform action. That is, though actions take place, even after one realizes that himself is not the doer, such actions no more bear fruits, that is, they more bind (XVIII.17).

Knowledge is the means for the followers of reason. This knowledge comes forth in the Gita as knowledge that reality is one which can be understood under its ‘lower’ and ‘higher’ nature. The first, the ‘lower nature’ constitutes the universe (VII.4), while the second, the ‘higher nature’ is the soul, the support of living being (VII.5). And then there is the Lord in whom “this (universe) is strung, like heaps of pearl on a string” (VII.7). These two natures of the ultimate reality again have been explained in Gita under different headings – the Field and the Field-knower. And this knowledge of the Field and Field-knower is considered as true knowledge in the Gita (XIII. 2). In another place of the Gita we come across knowledge as knowledge of the Lord and Brahman as well as that of the Strands as the binding factor. The man of knowledge thus knows that the actual agent is matter. As such he can be assumed to be acting with the knowledge that it is not he who is acting. This is also the way how disciplined man is defined: ‘I am in effect doing nothing at all?’ – so the disciplined man should think, knowing the truth, when he sees, hears, touches, smells, eats, walks, sleeps, breathes, talks, evacuates, grasps, opens and shuts his eyes; ‘The senses (only) on the objects of sense are operating’ – holding fast to this thought (V.8-9).  Thus it can be said that the man who performs with knowledge is practising discipline of knowledge.

A study of the bases of dharma reveals the importance of mental attitude in performance of dharma in the Gita. That the Gita has attached indifference to both the ways of reason and discipline is indicative of this very feature. In fact that this is so is clear from the very beginning of Krishna-Arjuna conversation. Arjuna asks Krishna what is dharma: “My being very afflicted with the taint of weak compassion, I ask Thee, my mind bewildered as to the dharma” (II.7). But Krishna does not answer by telling what dharma is. Rather what Krishna says reveals the importance of mental attitude: “Abiding in discipline perform actions” (II.48). And this indifference is certainly of mental nature. However, though the importance lies in the mental attitude, the Gita cannot be taken as advocating mental attitude alone. What it advocates is performance of action with certain mental attitude and not mere mental attitude. And that is why the advice to Arjuna is not just to carry the attitude but to fight with the right mental attitude: “Holding pleasure and pain alike, gain and loss, victory and defeat, then gird thyself for battle” (II.38).

Dr. Shakuntala, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy,  University of Gauhati, Guwahati, Assam

 

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Hanumān Approach after Overcoming the Hanumān Syndrome

Prof. Bal Ram Singh

[Editor’s noteA version of this article had appeared in MyIndMakers ( www.myind.net)]

hanuman sun

(Source of Image: https://sites.google.com/site/hanumanlivestoday/hanuman-s-birth)

People have heard many miraculous and not so miraculous things about Shri Hanumān, many times erroneously referred to as Monkey God, including by the former President of America, Barrack Obama, who kept a statuette of Hanumān as part of his lucky charm collections in his pocket.

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Whether Hanumān was a monkey or vānara, which mean people who lived with nature in forests, there are numerous stories of Hanumān which could inspire or at least provide learning lessons. As a young boy I had chosen Hanumān as my personal deva or ishtadeva to whom I used to offer sweets after my annual exam results were announced. I started wearing dhoti-kurta on the days I went to offer sweets. That skill of wearing dhoti kurta has remained with me even today. Many a time it is not as important what one believes when one performs particular action, rather the lessons one learns in performing the action. The lessons are for the life where the beliefs are for the moment.

Hanumān Background

Hanumān was son of Kesari, a vānar king of Sumerū, for which there are several claimants in Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Karnataka, and Anjana, a wise woman with divine background. It is known that Hanumān was born with blessings from Shiva and Pārvati, and also was helped by Vāyu devatā. All of them are well grounded in mountain, forest, and air. In other words Hanumān was influenced mostly by the nature and was connected to native people with wisdom from nature.

Hanumān State

Hanumān state of mind is that of someone who is bereft of ego and arrogance. “Hanu” means to kill and “mān” means the ego. That is why one sees and hears about Hanumān being very powerful yet always seen with folded hands and humble in service. There are stories about him getting a curse so that he would forget his power. However, given the Hanumān state of mind it will in fact be considered a boon. Certainly going by his great accomplishments and virtues, and the following even today, his traits can easily be considered as footsteps of success.

Hanumān Syndrome

Hanumān ji’s humility and determination are considered part of his real character that led him to win any mission he embarked upon. In the infinite states of consciousness, most people are focused on only limited tracks of the consciousness, and are in fact not aware of the existence (ego) of the other domains of their consciousness until they are reminded of by someone they believe and trust, such as parents, teachers, guru, etc.

Children and students are particularly vulnerable to the hidden capacity and potential unknown to them. This is the Hanumān syndrome that the whole humanity suffers from. This syndrome is treated by only wise and caring teachers or elders, who remove the syndrome with inspiration and infusion of courage through a series of steps to build confidence via knowledge and practice. This is what was done by Jāmvant, represented by as a Rikshraj and mānsputra of Brahmā, the creator of the universe. Jāmvant is not an ordinary bear, rather an individual with power and adaptability of a bear. He along with Hanumān and Paraśurām has distinction of being present in both Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata time. In other words, for Hanumān syndrome to be removed, an extraordinary teacher or guru is needed, by awakening the hidden consciousness.

Hanumān Approach

Once the Hanumān syndrome is treated, a person can achieve extraordinary feats. There is nothing that such an individual cannot do. Their approach becomes that of in improvisation rather than strategic and tactical. Since they are capable of doing anything they do not sit down to plan and process the goals. They actually begin to do what needs to be done, notwithstanding what may seem impossible to others. This is what Hanumān did when Lakśmana was hit with Shakti weapon of Meghnād. With Suśen (an Ayurvedic Vaidya) suggesting a prescription requiring Sanjīvanī from Himalayas in less than 12 hours, everyone is Ramā’s army had given up, except for the Hanumān free of his syndrome. He was the only one who could leap forward to Himalayas without any forethoughts, driven only by what needed to be done. He did not spend a semester learning the geography of Himalayas, asked for a GPS to reach there, or a long lesson on different types of plants, shrubs, and herbs.

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(Source of Image: https://ramleela.wordpress.com/2012/10/22/ramayana-viii-the-vanar-sena-to-the-rescue/)

He reached Himalayas after overcoming intentional hurdles thrown in his way represented by Kālanemī, which also means the perimeter of the time. Symbolically it means that Hanumān had to cross the limit of time to reach Himalayas and return. One there, he could not identify Sanjīvanī from many other medicinal herbs. He decided right then and there to bring the entire mountain so that Suśen can pick what was rightly needed. This is the Hanumān approach. Once awakened of one’s hidden capabilities, one does not look for everything favorable and in place to do one’s duty. In Hanumān approach, you do whatever is needed to accomplish the goal. If the world’s system does not allow one to do right things, then begin changing the world, whether it is for peace, food, health, equality, education, or the planet.

So, go ahead try the Hanumān approach, and let the world know the results! The Hanumān principle lives in all of us.

Prof. Bal Ram Singh, Director, School of Indic Studies, INADS, Dartmouth, USA

Vibration: The Cause of Our Existence and its connection with Vedic Philosophy (Part-II)

-Dr. Raj Kumar

(continued from part-I)

The ancient Vedic text also provides ideas about this concept. According to Veda, the entire universe is a manifestation of Prakriti, which is nothing but Parabrahman or the Purush. The Purush is the manifestation of a vibration called Svara, a life force. I would like to refer to the Nachiketa’s story in which Yama gave a very realistic answer to the Nachiketa’s question. Yama said “perception of sense is bigger than sense, mind is bigger than perception, knowledge is bigger than mind, Atma is bigger than knowledge, undefined (avayakt) is bigger than the Atma, and Purush is bigger than avayakt (Kathopnishad).

 यावत्सञ्जायते किञ्चित्सत्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् |
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ || 26||

yāvat sañjāyate kiñchit sattva sthāvara-jagamam
k
hetra-khetrajña-sanyogāt tad viddhi bharatarhabha

                                         (Bhagvatgita: Chapter Thirteen verse 26)

In this shloka, Sri Krishna said to Arjuna —– “Wherever a being is born, whether unmoving or moving, knows that it is from the union between the field and the knower of the field. (Purusha is the knower of the field; Prakriti is the field).

So, this Purush uses his Prakriti to manifest five different vibrations which causes the production of five basic physical elements; Akasha (Ether), Tejas (energy), Vayu (forces/fields), Pritvhi (atomic elements), and Apah (fluid). Apart from these five basic physical elements, the universe is composed of four non-physical elements; space, time, mind and Atma (space is a non-physical element of panchmahabhuta). I will describe the Atma later in this article. For now, we would concentrate on space, time and mind.

spirit

The concept of the body chakra in the Vedic text is nothing but energy point. These energy points are also defined by their vibrational frequency. For example, Muladhara (Cervix) frequency is 261.6, 523.3, 1046.5, 2093, 4186 Hz and denoted by sound note C (https://www.booksfact.com/mantra-sastra/mantras-frequencies-heal-kill-transcend.html). Also, modern science showed us that the best way of communication is vibration, for example WiFi, radio telescope, satellite communication, etc. These technologies prove one very important point that locality (or nearness) is not an important requirement for communication, as hypothesized previously. The idea of locality illustrates that if anything moved it was because of the action of something else on it. However, the idea of non-locality suggests that distant systems can be connected differently—— in a totally new way—— in which distance does not matter (Shacklett and Gough, 1991; Massar and Pironio, 2012). When we talk about a locality effect, we are talking about space time. We know the cause and we can trace the mechanism of the signal. On the other hand, when we talk about non-locality cause and effect are not linked —we can know the cause, we can know the effect —but cause and effect are not linked in the space-time because there is no measurable signal (very weak signal) or mechanism, or in space-time they are separated. Now let’s examine if it is true for the system where space-time is concentrated, for example the human body. The human body is made of 70 to 100 trillion cells of many different types. These cells need to exist in harmony and require very effective cellular communication process. When there is noise, interference, and misinformation enter into this communication process, the human body suffers. The cellular communication is through either electromagnetic or chemical communication systems. So, it is the information which provides an instruction to the system to acquire some form, structure and direction. And this information comes from the manipulation of energy which gives power to move the system, connects different aspects of a system, and helps in communications. Therefore, good cellular communication is the key to successfully create a healthy human body. Probably that is the reason why mothers are advised to have a nice and conducive environment around her, avoid drinking or eating bad foods, listen good music and avoid particle radiation. Environmental input is very important to the fetus and developing the body for healthy evolution of body and brain. Dr. Francis Rene Van de Carr (Chief Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Rose Hospital, Hayward, CA) has shown that there exists a developmental window of time during which wiring in the brain grows (from four months into the pregnancy until the three months after birth) and it is very sensitive to sensory input (Van de Carr, 1996; Gough, 1999). Sensory inputs include tactile patting, vibratory movement, and sounds from voice to music are needed to simulate heart beats. It also includes non-local inputs such as loving thoughts and feelings. Such sensory inputs are vibratory in nature and shown to increase growth rate, improve motor functions, enhance intelligence, and change the sense of self for life. So, one can hypothesize, at this point, that the initial input for the differentiation of cells in the human body is a non-local phenomenon. Another evidence of a non-local phenomenon comes from the concept of magnetic field. Magnetic field with electrical field creates an electromagnetic field (although the magnetic field itself can create an electric field and vice versa…..), which generates the non-local aspects of the reality. For example, we know that the earth has a magnetic field and life cannot exist without this, but in reality we never feel this. Can you imagine, we never feel the cause of our existence? Isn’t that interesting? The same way the Atma is the cause of our existence, which is the principle force of life representing the non-local aspects of our reality. Very often we connect Atma to the heart. Scientifically the magnetic flux density of heart is over 5000 times larger than that of the brain (Pearsall 1998; Clarke, 1994). Therefore, the Atma is also a non-local aspect of reality that retains patterns or forms beyond ordinary 3D space and time.

Various scriptures of Veda discussed that the universe created by sound or cosmic vibrations.

चत्वारि वाक् परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्रह्माणा ये मनीषिण: गुहा त्रीणि निहिता….मनुष्या वदन्ति।

“catvari vak parimita padani tani vidur brahmana ye minishinah, guha trini nihita neengayanti turiyam vaco manushya vadanti” 

                                                                                                            (Rig Veda 1.164.45) 

Vak that exists in four forms; three are hidden and the fourth is what we speak. These four levels are Para Vak (the highest form of sound), Pashyanti (the sound vibration heard in the causal worlds), Madhyama (the sound as perceived in the subtle or Pranic world) and Vaikhari (the lowest sound). In other words, thinking with words is Vaikhari, with ideas is Madhyama, with spirituality is Pashyanti, and with truth, it is Para-Vak.

Thought itself is a vibratory energy, which creates everything around us. So, in conclusion, reality is not what you see. Reality is the manifestation of the rate of frequencies in which an object is vibrating. Even object, phenomenon, thought, emotions or mental state has its corresponding rate and mode of vibration. Since the universe is also made up of vibration at the deepest level, manipulation of vibration of thoughts can affect that too.

References

Carr, Van de, F. R. (1996). The Ins and Outs of Communication with a Preborn Baby. FMBR Video tapes.

Clark, J. (1994). “SQUIDs.” Scientific American, 271, 73 – 74.

Massar, S., and Pironio, S. (2012). Viewpoint: A closer connection between entanglement and nonlocality. Physics, 5, 56.

Gough, W. C. (1999). The cellular communication process and alternative modes of healing. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine: An interdisciplinary journal of Energetic and informational interactions, 8, 56 – 60.

Shacklett, R. L. and Gough, W. C. (1991). The unification of mind and matter: A proposed Scientific Model. Foundation of Mind-Being Research, Technical Report.

Pearsall, P. (1998). The Heart’s Code: Tapping the wisdom and power of our heart energy. NY: Broadway Books.

– Dr. Raj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA.

 

 

Vibration: The Cause of Our Existence and its connection with Vedic Philosophy (Part-I)

– Dr. Raj Kumar

“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” – Nicole Tesla

Evolution over time….. one of the most intriguing and central theme of biology….. the past is the defining feature to the present. Life on this earth is a combination of chance and necessity which define evolutionary process. Necessity is facilitated by physical forces, chemical reactions, and is driven by survival tendencies. On the other hand, chance is associated with uncertainty of things, and is driven by randomness characteristics of the universe. But one thing is for sure, that all these things are associated with physical and chemical tendencies of molecules floating around us.

If we want to understand the nature and evolution of this world, then we need to understand the fundamental basis of the existence of matter. It is well known that the world is made of matter, but we do not understand the fundamental basis of working of this material world. How the material world is created and how it maintains its perpetual motion are a few of fundamental questions. To study this we need to study the code —— the energy code, which is essentially made of light, sound, frequency and vibration. At the fundamental level, all forms of this code are the same.

At a first glance, frequency and vibration appear to be the same. People often use vibration and frequency interchangeably, but there is a difference between both terms. When you consider the flow of energy then you can see the difference. When something vibrates, then energy contracts towards the center point from which it first came out of. In case of oscillation, the energy expands away from the center point and, and one unit of contraction and expansion is frequency. So, how fast an energy unit contract (vibration) and expands (oscillation) will determine the frequency rate of all things. This process also determines the density levels of the matter in the material realm. As the frequency rate of matter increases or decreases, matter becomes lighter and less dense. Since our body is made of matter, it will also become lighter and less dense as our frequency increases.

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(Source of Image : https://theawakenedstate.net/how-to-tune-your-own-frequency/)

 

In fact, the true state of reality is made from pattern of energy that flashes on and off frequency patterns that are perceived by our consciousness to give us the perception of time and the solidity of matter. In other words, matter behaves more like an illusion which is one of the conclusion of Indian ancient texts. However, the illusion should be taken seriously because it is a form of energy manifestation (in fact, it is the reality which we perceive). So, it is the frequency which gives matter its uniqueness and characteristics, and combination of frequency, vibration and oscillation are a further manifestation of geometries and structure. In my view, the best expression of illusion in Vedic text is the representation of the divine dance of Lord Shiva. The dance represents Shiva’s five activities (Panchakriya); Shrishti (creation), Sthiti (preservation), Samhara (destruction), Maya (illusion) and Moksha (salvation). There are three main essential significance of this divine dance; a) it is an image of rhythmic activities (vibration), which is the source of all movement in the universe, b) the purpose of this dance to make us aware of the illusionary characteristic of the world, and c) the place of happening is within us, whether it is the creation or destruction or illusion.

There is no solidity in the universe, it is just a manifestation of vibration. For example, a crystal structure is a collection of different bodies of the elements according to its particular vibrational frequency. One simple experiment can be set up with sand and tuning fork. Spread some sand over the head of a drum, then take a tuning fork and stick a note just above the drum. You will see the shifting of sand and acquiring a geometrical shape. Change into a different sound, the sand will shift to assume another geometrical feature. This is happening just because of the vibration that sound produces (Cynamatics experiments https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GtiSCBXbHAg).

Sound Frequencies + Vibration = Geometry

Another complex example is the universe and the Big Bang theory. The universe is continually expanding as suggested by the Big Bang theory, which is again the manifestation of push-pull (contraction-expansion) effect of gravitational force. This is also gravitational vibration, which balances the gravity and levity between objects in the universe. So, the origin of the universe is nothing but the manifestation of vibration. In the QFT (Quantum Field Theory) approach, the photon field is created by a vibration of electrons. The vibrational energy generated by the photon field transport energy and momentum. It is well-known from the pair production concept that a photon can create an electron-positron pair. Two sets of vibrations are set up by this process….. one is consistent with an electron vibration and other is consistent with the antimatter electron or positron vibration. So, again the behavior of our fundamental particles is dependent on the vibrations. Even Higgs Boson (a fundamental particle with even parity and no spin; popularly known as God particle), which is responsible for interaction with particles and gives them their mass, is detectable when it starts vibrating. This particle is only detectable when the particle collision in high field is allowed, which caused the Higgs field to vibrate and make detection possible.

 तेजो यत्ते रूपं कल्याणतमं तत्ते पश्यामि योऽसावसौ पुरुषः सोऽहमस्मि ॥ Isha Upanishad Verse 16.

The light which is the fairest form, I see it. I am what he is.

Ancient Indian sages may have figured out this phenomenon which may have been esoterically connected to the Vedic education system that includes oral traditions/techniques to transfer knowledge from one generation to another. Although the characteristics of Vedic oral traditions/techniques is not in the scope of this article, I mentioned this here to make a point and connection.

In universe, everything is energy vibration and all the geometric shapes are due to these vibrations, including our consciousness (Brian Waves; Table 1).

Table 1: Frequencies of brain waves

Frequency Range Name Associated With
>40 Hz Gamma waves Higher mental activity, including perception, problem solving, fear, and consciousness
13 – 39 Hz Beta waves Active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration, arousal, cognition, and or paranoia
7 – 13 Hz Alpha waves Relaxation (while awake), pre-sleep and pre-wake drowsiness, REM sleep, dreams
8 – 12 Hz Mu waves Mu rhythm, Sensorimotor rhythm
4 – 7 Hz Theta waves Deep meditation/relaxation, NREM sleep
<4 Hz Delta waves Deep dreamless sleep, loss of body awareness

All the stellar communications on earth and beyond are happening through vibration only. For example, the satellite radio offers an endless amount of stations all at once, and one can dial into any frequency they want. Just because one may turn to FM 88.7 Hz on the radio dial, it doesn’t mean that FM 90.1 Hz or AM 55.1 Hz doesn’t exist, it’s just that these particular frequencies were not resonating at one’s receiver, rather it is just that FM 88.7 Hz vibrates at the frequency that you prefer to vibrate on. Same thing in our perception of reality, we have a resonance of the things which we want to perceive, we want to vibrate on or say our perception wants to vibrate on….. it doesn’t mean the other things do not exist. Veda also developed this concept and mentioned that we are not the creator of the knowledge, we are just the transmitter, knowledge is available out (in the Akash tatva) there….. we need to resonate with those to get the sense of it. My biochemistry experience also substantiates this, the molecular interaction is not just a binding event, it is an event when molecules are in perfect rhythm of each other which allows them to come close, talk to each other and interact.

(to be continued…)

– Dr. Raj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA.

Homa Organic Farming for Sustainability and Climate Change Adaptation (Part-II)

-Mr. Anand Gaikwad

(continued from previous article)

For environmental balance and rain induction/cloud formation, the techniques mentioned in ancient Vedic sciences i.e. performance of yajñas are of great importance.

Components of Technology / Methodology

Fully integrated organic farming practices, i.e., components of livestock, biogas slurry, composting of biomass and animal manure, practicing biodiversity, intercropping, rotation of crops etc.

Creation of Resonance Point – Installation of Agnihotra/Trambakam Hut for receiving and broadcasting subtle energies from sun and moon cycles.

Bovine is Divine –  Full and complete integration of cow family with the farm.

Performance of AgnihotraIn Agnihotra the substances used are cow dung cakes, cow ghee, rice, dry–wooden sticks of certain trees, medicinal herbs etc that helps in cleansing of Biosphere. The agronomic practices of performing Agnihotra/Medicinal Homas as fumigation techniques are essential components of Vedic Agriculture or “Homa Farming”.

Biogas Slurry – Enrichment and enhancement of Biogas slurry with effective micro–nutrients/Homa ash/Panchgavya for soil health and Rhizosphere Management.

Panchgavya/Kunapajala – An elixir prepared by using five products of cow i.e. cowdung, cow urine, milk, curd and ghee plus some other ingredients. This works as a nourishing elixir for soil and useful in Rhizosphere and Biosphere Management of the farm.

Cosmic influence of Planets on Plant life –  Rudolf Steiner’s philosophy is that plants grow not only through the fertility of the soil but also with support from cosmos – the rhythms of the sun, moon, planets and wider constellations of the Zodiac. According to Biodynamic principles, the four parts of the plants i.e. root, stem, leaves, flower and fruits correspond to the four classic elements of nature. The Sap inside the plants flow upward or downward according to ascending or descending moon cycle. According to Vedic Sciences, all objects, substances and life patterns in the universe are made from Panchmahabhutas. In “Vrikshyaayurveda of Parashara (By N. N. Sarkar and Roma Sarkar) it is stated that Plants have consciousness and feelings. As a part of plant physiology the text records a concept relating to the transport system inside the plant. The vascular circulating system consists of Syandani and Sira. Of these, Syandani performs the function of transporting elementary fluid (Panchbhautik Rasa) from earth (soil) with the help of roots. Through Sira the fluid circulates both in the inward and outward directions. The rasa is to be conceived (according to Sankhya Darshana of ancient philosophy) right from the basic invisible matter. This rasa nourishes the plant organs with all the derivations of five “Panchmahabhautik elements” viz. “Khsiti (earth)”, “Aap (water)”, “Tej (Solar/Agni)”, “Vayu (air)” and “Aakash (space)”.

Just as Biodynamic farming, Homa organic farming is based on yajñas and Life Bio-energy forces, whose main source is the energy from the sun. This Cosmic energy we call it as “Prana-tatva” or “Pranic energy”. In following the principle य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पतां प्रा॒णो य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पताम्-अपा॒नो य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पतां॒ व्या॒नो य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पतां॒ चक्षु॑र्-य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पता॒ग्॒ श्रोत्रं॑ य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पतां॒ मनो॑ य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पतां॒ वाग्-य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पताम्-आ॒त्मा य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पतां य॒ज्ञो य॒ज्ञेन॑ कल्पताम् ॥ as mentioned in Rudram Chamakam (10).

The most important thing about this agricultural methodology which is based on Vedic Sciences is that it recognizes the forces of “Aakash (space)” the fifth element i.e. the subtle energies of both light and sound (Nad-brahma) to enhance the Cosmic influence of planets on plants. Aakash is the mother of all other elements and “Nad” or “Sound” is its most omnipotent and subtlest force, which has capacity to reach Cosmos of Twenty-seven Constellations. Shri Vasant Paranjape in his book “Homa Therapy – our Last Chance” says “when these specific mantras are uttered at the specific times of sunrise/sunset “RESONANCE” takes place in the pyramid.  The most powerful effect is with the word “SWAHA”. It is the Resonance which heals.” This is how plant plagues and epidemics go away. Resonance plays vital part in natural phenomena.  He further says “when Mantras are done in conjunction with Homa fires the vibrations from mantras become locked up in the ash and therefore ash becomes more powerful under this method to heal atmosphere and create conducive Biosphere for healthy growth of plants and animal life.”

Nakshatra-wise rain-forecast and performance of Homas according to astronomical positions of constellations for attracting influence of cosmic forces on plants / animals and for rain-induction is the area of research that leads to preparation of location based specific agro-climatic calendar. This will be another dimension of Homa farming. Additionally, it is also proposed to study the effect of ashes from Samidhas of Yajñyiya Vrikshas used during Havans. The relationship of Agnihotra/Yajñas, environment and Agriculture are explained in the following diagram:diagram

Thus, these practices based on Vedic Sciences and recommended in texts like “Vruksha Ayurveda of Parashar, Kashyapiya Krishi Sukti, Brihit Samhita by Varah Mihir” are helpful in Biosphere Management for healthy plant / animal life and human life.

-Mr. Anand Gaikwad, Krishi Bhushan Sendriya  Sheti  M. S. & Retd. Executive Director/Company Secretary

 

गीता में योग की व्याख्या

डॉ. श्यामदेवमिश्र

(continued from previous article)

योग की गीता में व्याख्या से मन में शंका उठती है कि प्रभु ने योग की कई परिभाषाएं दे डालीं जिससे योग के स्वरुप को समझना सामान्य जिज्ञासु के लिए कठिन हो गया है। पहले सिद्धि और असिद्धि की समता को योग कहा; फिर कर्म की कुशलता को योग कहा और आगे दु:ख के संयोग के वियोग को भी योग कहा। किन्तु विचार करने पर यह शंका निर्मूल सिद्ध होती है। प्रभु ने योग के अनेक लक्षण नहीं बताए हैं अपितु एक ही लक्षण को अनेक प्रकार से समझाया है। वास्तव में फल की आशा छोड़कर कर्त्तव्य बुद्धि से कर्म करते रहना ही कर्मयोग है। उस फल की आशा को छोड़ने के अलग-अलग विवरण हैं। फल की आशा छोड़ देने पर सिद्धि और असिद्धि में समानता हो जायेगी। फल की आशा से ही कर्म-सिद्ध होने पर सुख और असिद्ध होने पर दुःख हुआ करता है; फलाशा न रहने पर न सुख होगा न दुःख। तब सिद्धि और असिद्धि में समता हो गयी। यही योग है। इसी प्रकार समानता रखकर कर्म करते जाने से आत्मा पर कर्म का कोई प्रभाव नहीं आता इसलिए यह अर्थात् योग एक बड़ा कौशल या चतुरता भी हुई। यहाँ फलाशा के त्याग को ही ‘कौशल’ शब्द से प्रकट किया है क्योंकि फलाशा-त्याग न करने के स्थिति में फलाशा पूर्ण न होने पर दु:ख हुआ करता है। फलाशा छोड़ देने पर दु:ख का भी प्रसंग नहीं रहेगा। अत: दु:ख संयोग-वियोगरूप लक्षण में भी वही बात प्रकारांतर से कही जाएगी। कहने का तात्पर्य यह है कि एक ही विषय को भिन्न-भिन्न शब्दों से भिन्न-भिन्न अर्थों में समझाया गया है। ‘योग’ शब्द का अर्थ कर्म-योग मान लेने पर सभी लक्षणों की सङ्गति उक्त प्रकार से हो जाती है।

यहाँ एक और प्रश्न उठता है जिसका समाधान अत्यावश्यक है कि फलाशा-त्याग अर्थात् फल की आशा को छोड़ देने से क्या अभिप्राय है?

फल की आशा छोड़ने से तात्पर्य है कि फल के प्रति चिंता ही न करे। इसके दो कारण हैं –  पहला कि फल के बारे में सोचने पर कर्म दुष्प्रभावित या विकृत होगा। दूसरा केवल कर्म के प्रति मनुष्य का अधिकार है यानी केवल कर्म करना ही उसके वश में है; फल के प्रति मनुष्य का अधिकार अर्थात् वश ही नहीं है। यानी फल क्या मिलेगा? कितना मिलेगा? कब मिलेगा? इत्यादि मनुष्य के अधिकार-क्षेत्र के बाहर की बात है। अत: अधिकार-क्षेत्र से बाहर के विषय में चिन्तना करना ही व्यर्थ है। इसीलिये प्रभु ने कहा है – कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन

तब ऐसे में प्रश्न उठता है कि अनधिकार होने के कारण यदि मनुष्य फल की इच्छा का त्याग कर देवे यानी उसके बारे में सोचे ही नहीं तब फिर कर्म करने का प्रयोजन क्या रहा? और बिना प्रयोजन के मनुष्य कर्म ही क्यूँ करे?

इसका समाधान यह है कि प्रयोजन दो प्रकार का समझा जा सकता है – १. क्षणिक या ऐहिक और २. आत्यन्तिक या पारलौकिक । क्षणिक प्रयोजन वह है जिससे प्राप्त सुख की अवधि निश्चित हो; यानी जिसमें फल के उपभोग की समाप्ति अर्थात् वियोग-रूपी दु:ख भी मिलना तय है। क्षणिक प्रयोजन के ही तीन अवान्तर रूप हैं – धर्म, अर्थ और काम ये तीन पुरुषार्थ। किन्तु उत्कृष्टतम कर्म से प्राप्त ब्रह्मलोकरूपी फल के भी भोग के पश्चात् पुन: मनुष्य जीवन-मृत्यु-चक्र में फँसता है। भगवान् ने स्वयं ही कहा है – आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोका: पुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन (गीता )

किन्तु आत्यन्तिक प्रयोजन वह है जिससे प्राप्त सुख का अन्त ही नहीं है अर्थात् जिसमें लेश-मात्र भी दु:ख नहीं है। यही कारण है कि इसे परमप्रयोजन या परमपुरुषार्थ मोक्ष कहा है।

अब यह मनुष्य पर है कि वह किस प्रयोजन का चयन करता है। मनुष्य, जो कि लेश-मात्र भी दुखाकाङ्क्षी नहीं है, वह ‘दुःख हो ही न’ ऐसा प्रबंध क्यों न करे? वही आत्यन्तिक-प्रयोजन अर्थात् मोक्ष है जो केवल पूर्वोक्त योग यानि कर्मयोग  से ही संभव है।

Krishna-arjun-e1489044770798

(Source of image : http://www.navhindu.com/bhagwad-gita-chapter-3/)

इस प्रकार जो कर्म, मनुष्य को स्वभाव से ही बांधने वाले हैं, वे ही मुक्ति देने वाले हो जाएं – यही वस्तुत: कर्मों में कुशलता है। कर्म करने की ऐसी ही चतुरता को योग कहते हैं कि मनुष्य कर्म करता भी जाए और उसके बंधन में भी न फंसे। काजल की कोठारी में जाकर बिना कालिख लगाए निकल आना ही बड़ी भारी चतुरता है। ऐसी ही कुशलता योग से प्राप्त होती है कि कर्म करता भी जाए और उसका फल भी अपने पर आने न दे।

इस प्रकार देखा जाए तो योग: कर्मसु कौशलम् योग की परिभाषा से बढ़कर उसकी महिमा का उद्घोष है।

डॉ. श्यामदेवमिश्र, सहायकाचार्य (ज्योतिष), राष्ट्रिय-संस्कृत-संस्थान, भोपाल परिसर, भोपाल, म.प्र.

 

योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्

[It was broadcasted by International Broadcast service, All India Radio, New Delhi in 2016 on the occasion of International Yog Day]

डॉ. श्यामदेवमिश्र

‘योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्’ यह श्लोकांश योगेश्वर श्रीकृष्ण के श्रीमुख से उद्गीरित श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता के द्वितीय अध्याय के पचासवें श्लोक से उद्धृत है। श्लोक इस प्रकार है –

“बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृतेतस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्”।।इति।।

श्लोक के उत्तरार्ध पर यदि गौर करें तो दो बातें स्पष्ट होती हैं। पहली योग की परिभाषा एवं दूसरी योग हेतु प्रभु का स्पष्ट निर्देश। उनका उपदेश है कि ‘योगाय’ अर्थात् योग के लिए अथवा योग में, ‘युज्यस्व’ अर्थात् लग जाओ। कहने का तात्पर्य है कि ‘योग में प्रवृत्त हो जाओ’ यानि कि ‘योग करो’। अब प्रश्न यह है कि क्यूँ करें योग? इस प्रश्न का उत्तर उन्होंने श्लोक के पूर्वार्ध में दिया है कि बुद्धिमान व्यक्ति अर्थात् योगी, वर्तमान में ही अथवा इस संसार में ही ‘सुकृत’ एवं ‘दुष्कृत’ अर्थात् पुण्य एवं पाप से मुक्त हो जाता है। योग के इस हेतु को स्पष्टतया जानने के लिये, सबसे पहले यह समझना परमावश्यक है कि ‘योग क्या है’? या ‘योग किसे कहते हैं’?

httpwww.boisetemple.orgbhakti-yoga

(Source of Image: http://www.boisetemple.org/bhakti-yoga/)

गीता में ‘योग’ शब्द के तीन अर्थ हैं – १. समता; जैसे – समत्वं योग उच्यते(२/४८); २. सामर्थ्य, ऐश्वर्य या प्रभाव; जैसे – पश्य मे योगमैश्वर्यम्(९/५); और ३ समाधि; जैसे – यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया(६/२०)। यद्यपि गीता में ‘योग’ का अर्थ मुख्य रूप से समता ही है तथापि ‘योग’ शब्द के अंतर्गत तीनों ही अर्थ स्वीकार्य हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त गीता में योग की तीन परिभाषाएं भी मिलती हैं जो कि दूसरे अध्याय के क्रमश: ४८वें एवं ५०वें श्लोक में तथा छठे अध्याय के २३वें श्लोक में निर्दिष्ट हैं। ये परिभाषाएं क्रमश: इस प्रकार हैं –

“समत्वं योग उच्यते”(गीता २/४८)

“योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्” (गीता २/५०)

तं विद्याद्दु:खसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम्।(गीता /२३)

‘योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्’  के दो अर्थ लिये जा सकते हैं –

1. कर्मसु कौशलं योग: अर्थात् कर्मों में कुशलता ही योग है।

२. कर्मसु योग: कौशलम् अर्थात् कर्मों में योग ही कुशलता है।

यदि हम पहला अर्थ लें यानि कर्मों में कुशलता ही योग है तो, जो बड़ी ही कुशलता से सावधानी से ठगी, चोरी या फिर हत्या आदि कर्म करता है उसका कर्म भी ‘योग’ हो जाएगा! किन्तु ऐसा मानना उचित नहीं है और फिर श्लोक में निषिद्ध कर्मों का प्रसंग भी नहीं है। अगर हम यहाँ ‘कर्म’ शब्द से केवल शुभ कर्मों का ही ग्रहण करें तब फिर ‘कर्मसु कौशलम् योग:’ इस पद के दो अलग-अलग परिप्रेक्ष्य में भावार्थ निकलेंगे जो प्रसंग-विशेष में तो ठीक प्रतीत होते हैं किन्तु गीता में प्रभु द्वारा प्रतिपादित योग के सिद्धांतों से इतर सिद्ध होते हैं। आइए उन दोनों पर ही गौर करते हैं –

शुभ कर्मों में कुशलता ही योग है अर्थात् शुभ कर्मों को कुशलतापूर्वक करना ही योग है। इस अर्थ में ‘योग’ शब्द से मानसिक, बौद्धिक एवं शारीरिक समन्वयन एवं तादात्म्य अभिप्रेत है। यानि मन, बुद्धि एवं शरीर इन तीनों को एक साथ जोड़कर जब हम कोई कार्य करते हैं तो निश्चित ही उस कार्य में कुशलता या संपूर्ण दक्षता प्राप्त होती है, जिसे योग कहते हैं। व्यावहारिक परिप्रेक्ष्य में, यह अर्थ सटीक है एवं सफलता के सूत्र-रूप में स्वीकार्य है। आधिदैविक या अलौकिक परिप्रेक्ष्य में इसका भावार्थ यह है कि यदि कुशलतापूर्वक अर्थात् मन, बुद्धि एवं क्रिया तीनों के ही संयोग से यदि जप-तपादि अनुष्ठान किया जाए तो निश्चित ही अभीष्ट (शक्ति/सिद्धि) से योग (या संयोग) होता है।

अब यहाँ प्रश्न यह है कि उक्त दोनों ही भावार्थ, गीता में प्रतिपादित योग की संकल्पना से किस प्रकार भिन्न हैं? इसको समझने के लिए योग की परिभाषा को समझना होगा, जिसमें कहा है  –

योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय

सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्यो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते”।। (गीता २/४८)

अर्थात्हे धनञ्जय! तुम योग में स्थित होकर शास्त्रोक्त कर्म करते जाओ। केवल कर्म में आसक्ति का त्याग कर दो और कर्म सिद्ध हो या असिद्ध अर्थात् उसका फल मिले या फिर न मिले, इन दोनों ही अवस्थाओं में अपनी चित्तवृत्ति को समान रखो। अर्थात् सिद्ध होने पर हर्ष एवं असिद्ध होने पर विषाद अपने चित्त में मत आने दो। यह सिद्धि एवं असिद्धि में सम-वृत्ति रखना ही योग है ।

यहाँ ‘योग’ शब्द कर्मयोग का ही बोधक है। यहाँ न केवल कर्म के स्वर्गादि फलों के छोड़ने की बात कही गयी है अपितु प्रातिस्विक फल की आशा छोड़कर कर्म करने से जो चित्त-शुद्धि या भगवत्प्रसाद आदि फल प्राप्त होते हैं, उनकी सिद्धि-असिद्धि में भी सामान भाव रखने की बात कही गयी है अर्थात् यह विचार मत करो कि इतने दिन मुझे कर्मयोग में लग गए अभी तक मेरी चित्त-शुद्धि कुछ नहीं हुई या भगवत्प्रसाद के कुछ लक्षण मुझे दिखाई नहीं दिए। तुम तो केवल कर्त्तव्य समझकर कर्म करते जाओ, इस कर्म का फल क्या हो रहा है इस ओर कोई दृष्टि ही न दो। इसी का नाम योग या कर्मयोग है। इस श्लोक की व्याख्या में कई विद्वानों ने योग का अर्थ परमात्मा से सम्बन्ध माना है यानी परमात्मा से सम्बन्ध रखते हुए कर्म करो अर्थात जो कुछ करो वह परमात्मा को प्रसन्न करने के ही उद्देश्य से करो और कर्मों को परमात्मा को ही अर्पण कर दिया करो।

योग या कर्मयोग के पूर्वोक्त स्वरूप के आलोक में अब हम पुन: योग: कर्मसु कौशलम् के उन पूर्वोक्त भावार्थों पर विचार करते हैं। अगर यहाँ शुभ-कर्मों को ही कुशलतापूर्वक करने का नाम योग मानें तो मनुष्य कुशलतापूर्वक साङ्गोपाङ्ग किये हुए शुभ-कर्मों के फल से बंध जाएगा। कहा भी है– फले सक्तो निबध्यते; अत: उसकी स्थिति समता में नहीं रहेगी और उसके दुखों का नाश नहीं होगा। फलत: प्रभु द्वारा प्रतिपादित योग की संगति इस अर्थ में नहीं बैठेगी।

यहाँ एक जिज्ञासा है कि शुभ कर्मों को करने के बाद भी मनुष्य दु:ख क्यूँ पाएगा? इसका समाधान यह है कि कितना भी शुभ कर्म-करने वाला क्यूँ न हो किन्तु मनुष्य की सभी इच्छाएं पूर्ण नहीं होतीं अथवा सब कुछ सर्वदा ही उसके मनोनुकूल नहीं होता; जो कि अंतत: उसे दुःख ही पहुঁचाता है। यदि ऐसा नहीं होता तो फिर मर्यादा पुरुषोत्तम राम या फिर सत्यवादी हरिश्चंद्र, जो कि स्वप्न में भी अशुभ कर्मों से दूर रहे, उन्हें अत्यंत कष्ट क्यों झेलना पड़ता!

तब ऐसे में प्रश्न उठता है कि दु:ख की आत्यन्तिक निवृत्ति कैसे हो? इसका उत्तर है – जीवन-मरण-चक्र से मुक्ति अर्थात् मोक्ष होने पर। ये कब होगा? उत्तर है – कर्मफलों के संपूर्ण भुक्त हो जाने पर। फिर शंका हुई कि जब तक जीवन है तब तक न तो कर्म करना कभी समाप्त होगा और न ही उसके फल का भोग और बिना फल भोगे तो कृत-कर्म की समाप्ति भी नहीं होगी; कहा है –नाभुक्तं क्षीयते कर्म। कहने का तात्पर्य यह है कि कर्म से फल की उत्पत्ति एवं फल-भोगार्थ पुन: कर्म; इस प्रकार से तो यह अनवरत चलने वाला क्रम बन गया। दूसरे शब्दों में, जीवन-मरण-चक्र से मुक्ति ही नहीं होगी। यह सुनकर तो और दुःख बढ़ ही गया। अरे भाई! जब तक मुक्ति नहीं होगी तब तक दु:ख भी समाप्त नहीं होगा। यह तो बड़ी ही भारी विपदा है! क्योंकि जो व्यक्ति धरती पर आया है उसका कर्मासक्त होना और फिर इस आसक्ति के कारण दु:खी होना निश्चित है। शास्त्रों में आया है –कर्मणा बध्यते जन्तु: अर्थात् कर्मों से मनुष्य बंध जाता है। कर्म कितने ही बढियां हों, उनका आरम्भ तथा अन्त होता है और उनके फल का संयोग और वियोग भी होता है। जिसका आरम्भ और अन्त संयोग और वियोग से होता है, उसके द्वारा मुक्ति कैसे प्राप्त होगी? साथ ही यह प्रश्न भी अनुत्तरित रह गया कि दु:ख के संयोग का वियोग कैसे हो? अर्थात् दु:ख का निवारण कैसे हो?

इन्हीं समस्याओं के समाधान हेतु प्रभु ने योग या कर्मयोग का सिद्धांत प्रतिपादित करते हुए उपदेश किया कि बिना आसक्ति रखे कर्म करना ही योग है, जिससे कारण कर्म के फल अर्थात् भोग से सम्बन्ध छूट जाता है और अन्तत: मुक्त होने के कारण दुःख भी समाप्त हो जाते हैं। इसी कारण प्रभु ने ‘योग’ को दु:ख के संयोग का वियोग भी ही माना है –

तं विद्याद्दु:खसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम्।(गीता /२३)

यदि उपर्युक्त अर्थ (यानि कर्मों में कुशलता ही योग है) का ही ग्रहण करना अभीष्ट हो तो फिर कुशलता का अर्थ समत्व या निष्कामभाव यानि कि ‘योग’ लेना होगा। किन्तु जब उपर्युक्त पद में ‘योग’ शब्द आया ही है तो फिर पुन: कुशलता का अर्थ योग करने की क्या आवश्यकता है? यानि “कर्मों में कुशलता ही योग है” इस अर्थ से काम नहीं चलेगा। ऐसी स्थिति में “योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्” का ‘योग ही कर्मों में कुशलता है’ ऐसा सीधा अर्थ क्यों न ले लिया जाए? पूर्व के श्लोक में योग की परिभाषा से स्पष्ट है कि यहाँ योग ही विधेय है कर्मों की कुशलता नहीं फिर कर्म तो नाशवान हैं; नाशवान् के द्वारा अविनाशी की प्राप्ति नहीं हो सकती है। अत: महत्त्व योग का है, कर्मों का नहीं। अत: “योग: कर्मसु कौशलम्” का यही अर्थ – ‘योग ही कर्मों में कुशलता है’ उचित प्रतीत होता है।

(to be continued…)

डॉ. श्यामदेवमिश्र, सहायकाचार्य (ज्योतिष), राष्ट्रिय-संस्कृत-संस्थान, भोपाल परिसर, भोपाल, म.प्र.