Honoring the Father

– Prof. Bal Ram Singh

In a country where मातृ देवो भव, पितृ देवो भव, एवं आचार्य देवो भव have been the norms, designating Mother’s Day and Father’s Day may sound like a demotion of mothers and fathers. Instead, it is considered as a much needed appreciation of them in the western world.

There are several peculiarities surrounding the origin and establishment of Father’s Day here in the United States, where it is an official holiday. Interestingly, efforts to establish both Mother’s and Father’s Days were led by daughters, not sons, and both were in fact initiated by the Church (Mother May or Mothering Church for Mother’s Day and St. Joseph’s Day for Father’s Day).  While Father’s Day was established over 50 years after the Mother’s Day was already an official holiday, (in fact, after many more failed attempts at establishment than Mother’s Day) both holidays were in fact initially rejected by the US Congress: they jokingly extrapolated a future need of a “Mother-in-Law’s Day”.  Eventually, both holidays were proclaimed by presidential orders. However, the more sincere criticism from congress was that establishing appreciation for parents as holidays would lead to commercialization of these occasions, reducing a heart-to-heart moment to a hand-to-hand exchange of gifts.

During debates over the establishment of Father’s Day, it was common to argue that one parent (mother) cannot be recognized while the other (father) is not. The division of parents into distinct categories like “matriarchal” and “patriarchal” can be seen more as a lens perpetuated in my opinion by some modern social scientists than actual truth. Even in the animal kingdom, where the complexities of human society, tradition, culture, and philosophy do not exist, a child is often cared by both mother and father.  The social interpretation of the culture (sanskriti), traditions (parampara), and philosophy (darshan) needs narrational perspective and an integrative approach. Matri sattatmak (matriarchal) and Pitre sattatmak (patriarchal) societies inherently mean the motherhood and fatherhood, not simply woman and man as is generally implicated by social activists. Therein lies the narrative problem.

Indian cultures exhort raising of woman to the motherhood in perspective (not necessarily giving birth, although that reinforces it automatically). In India the nation is called motherland whereas in the West it is fatherland. Ancestors are referred to as पूर्वज in India whereas forefathers in America in a social context. Wikipedia lists 60 countries which call their native country as fatherland. Ancient Greek, Patris, fatherland, led to Latin Patrios, and finally into Patriotism. Thus father figure is a dominant cultural ethos of the western world.

In India it is, of course, Mother India or भारत माता, that is the war cry for the land. I had heard from a Swami ji (but could not find myself in any literature) that in Indian culture a child is most fortunate whose father is a dharmatma and whose mother is a pativrata. This is far cry from the competing dominance portrayed by the reference such a society as matriarchal vs. patriarchal, which Indian intellectual class apes it.

The combined differences between how Eastern and Western cultures view and treat motherhood and fatherhood indicate clearly that there is no simple mapping of words or cultural concepts from one onto the other. When comparing the two, one needs to understand the context in which terms, language, and celebrations are framed. Learning from other cultures is good, but doing so without an understanding of the differing perspectives, and without an appreciation for our own way of seeing the world, is counter-productive.

There is a book written with the title of ‘Dharti Mata aur Pita Akash’ by Pushpa Sinha, and of course the favorite Hindi song, Dharti meri mata pita Akash from Geet Gata Chal Hindi movie (1975) shows the complementarity of parents for appropriate care and growth of a child. Nevertheless, Indian culture is matriarchal right from the pauranic concept of Adya as the origin of tridevas and tridevis.  Even in modern times at least 500 years ago in Tulsi Ramayana, there is a clear mention that mother holds higher position than the father – जौ केवल पितु आयसु ताता, तौ जिन जाउ जानि बड़ि माता -as stated by Ram’s mother, Kaushalya. So, while Kerala tradition may be matriarchal (or maybe ladyarchal to be more appropriate). The matriarchal tradition of India as per Ramayana standards is widespread in the culture.

Once that narrative is accepted, it is then possible to integrate with the famous Manusmriti idea of ‘यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवता…’, which needs to be interpreted as, where women reach the status or level  of being worshiped (implying only motherhood) even gods frequent that place for pleasure.

There is much to learn from Indian philosophy as to what a mother is to be – life giver, guru, teacher, god, etc., which is what elevates her to the level of worship, not those who hire maids to take care of their children or those who do not have education, training, knowledge, and resources.

A father is a gyan guru, and is expected to give diksha to the son, and perhaps daughter by the time of the upanayana sanskar (there are instances where daughters undergo upanayana sanskar). In this ritual, the father utters some secret mantra (usually Gayatri mantra) in the ears of the child at the ceremony. This indicates the conclusion of education from father and commencement of the education from Guru. In the story of the Ganesha his father Shiva cuts off Ganesha’s head, eventually replacing it with the head of an elephant at the behest of Ganesha’s mourning mother Parvati.  Instead of taking only the story’s literal meaning, we can instead see symbolically Shiva playing his true role as a father: removing Ganesha’s ignorance, as symbolized by the head he was born with, and replacing it with a much larger head of an elephant, symbolizing his newly gained wisdom.

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(Image : Prof. Singh and his son)

In my own personal life, living in America, I try to emphasize on Father’s Day what a father is supposed to do on a regular basis: I normally cook breakfast for the family showing my cooking ability and skills (all three children learned formal cooking from me rather than their mother who is obviously more skillful at cooking than I am); I then make sure to mow the lawn, which I do despite my wife’s advice of hiring landscaper (quite common in United States); we spend time relishing some father-child memories; finally, I give some fatherly advice (lecture!!) to my children. I do not like to be pampered by any special treatment or gifts from children, as that encourages commercialization (the original concern of US lawmakers in opposing declaring Father’s Day an official holiday), and reduces the idea to materialism, which is quite different from what I consider my children as संतानाः, as in सम्यक तान्यते ते संतानाः those who reflect not only my material body but also my subtle body (ethereal, astral, mental, and spiritual) and spiritualism. May all of us have a Father’s Day by becoming and having संतानाः!

Prof. Bal Ram Singh, Director, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, USA 

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माता की अवधारणा

मदर्स डे पर विशेषविमर्श

-डॉ. शशि तिवारी

 

यह संसार भगवान् की अद्भुत रचना है। भगवान् के इस सृजन का हम सब प्राणी उपभोग करते हैं। रचयिता होने से ही ईश्वर को ‘माता’ कहते हैं – त्वमेव माता च पिता त्वमेव । माना गया है कि हम सब ईश्वर के अंश हैं। तो जो गुण ईश्वर में हैं वे प्राणियों में भी हो सकते हैं या कि प्राकृतिक रूप से होने चाहिए। मातृत्व एक ऐसा ही गुण है। केवल मनुष्य ही नहीं पशु-पक्षी भी किसी न किसी प्रकार के सर्जन और निर्मिति की कला में निपुण देखे जाते हैं। हर किसी में रचनाधर्मिता होती है- कभी कम कभी अधिक। तभी देवी की स्तुति में कहा गया है –

            “या देवी सर्वभूतेषु मातॄरूपेण संस्थिता। 

            नम: तस्यै नम: तस्यै नम: तस्यै नमो नम:॥”

वेद में माता-पिता के युग्म को ‘मातरा’ या ‘मातरौ’ कहते हैं यानी माता और पिता दोनों माता ही हैं। इसी तरह द्यावापृथ्वी का नाम ‘मातरा’ है; पृथ्वी हमारी माता है और आकाश पिता। सांसारिक माता और पिता के जोडे के लिए ‘पितरौ’ या ‘पितरा’ शब्द भी प्रयोग में आए हैं; यानी दोनों ही पिता हैं। यह ठीक वैसे ही है जैसे पति-पत्नी के युग्म को ‘दम्पती’ कहते हैं। भारतीय मनीषा ने शब्दों में ही जीवन-मूल्यों को सूत्र में मणियों कि भांति पिरोया हुआ है। तात्पर्य है कि महत्व की दृष्टि से माता और पिता लगभग समान ही हैं। इसीलिए कहते हैं – ‘मातृ देवो भव, पितृ देवो भव’। परंतु जब बात जनन की होती है तो जनि, जनी, जनयित्री आदि नामों से मां को जाना जाता है क्योंकि वह उत्पन्न करने वाली है। केवल उत्पन्न ही नहीं उसके बाद जो लालन-पालन की आवश्यकता है वह भी वही करती है। एतदर्थ उसमें स्नेह और ममता की आवश्यकता है और इसके वाचक अंबा, अम्बि, अम्बी आदि शब्द मां के लिए वेद में प्राप्त होते हैं। इन सब नामों से माता जननी, स्नेहमयी, पूजनी्य़ा, आत्मीया बतायी गयी है। उत्पन्न करने वाली का साक्षात् स्वरूप ‘माता’ पद में दिखाई दे्ता है, इसलिए उसे इस सम्मान से विभूषित किया गया है कि वह जननी है और ईश्वर के समकक्ष है।

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(Source of image : https://www.pinterest.com/pin/31806741093104880/)

सतत् स्मरणीय है कि साक्षात् माताएं हमारी सम्माननीय हैं; क्योंकि ‘मातृत्व’ मानवीय गुणों में सर्वोपरि है। रचना करना तथा पालन करना – प्रत्येक मनुष्य का धर्म कर्म होना चाहिए, तभी सामजिक संतुलन बना रह सकता है। जब हम मातृ-दिवस मनाये तो ये याद रखें कि यह अपने दायित्वों को वहन करने की शिक्षा देने वाला दिन है। यह रचनाधर्मिता का दिन है या फिर रचनाधर्मिता के अभिनंदन का दिन!

– डॉ. शशि तिवारी,अध्यक्ष, वेव्सभारत 

Hanumān Approach after Overcoming the Hanumān Syndrome

Prof. Bal Ram Singh

[Editor’s noteA version of this article had appeared in MyIndMakers ( www.myind.net)]

hanuman sun

(Source of Image: https://sites.google.com/site/hanumanlivestoday/hanuman-s-birth)

People have heard many miraculous and not so miraculous things about Shri Hanumān, many times erroneously referred to as Monkey God, including by the former President of America, Barrack Obama, who kept a statuette of Hanumān as part of his lucky charm collections in his pocket.

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Whether Hanumān was a monkey or vānara, which mean people who lived with nature in forests, there are numerous stories of Hanumān which could inspire or at least provide learning lessons. As a young boy I had chosen Hanumān as my personal deva or ishtadeva to whom I used to offer sweets after my annual exam results were announced. I started wearing dhoti-kurta on the days I went to offer sweets. That skill of wearing dhoti kurta has remained with me even today. Many a time it is not as important what one believes when one performs particular action, rather the lessons one learns in performing the action. The lessons are for the life where the beliefs are for the moment.

Hanumān Background

Hanumān was son of Kesari, a vānar king of Sumerū, for which there are several claimants in Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Karnataka, and Anjana, a wise woman with divine background. It is known that Hanumān was born with blessings from Shiva and Pārvati, and also was helped by Vāyu devatā. All of them are well grounded in mountain, forest, and air. In other words Hanumān was influenced mostly by the nature and was connected to native people with wisdom from nature.

Hanumān State

Hanumān state of mind is that of someone who is bereft of ego and arrogance. “Hanu” means to kill and “mān” means the ego. That is why one sees and hears about Hanumān being very powerful yet always seen with folded hands and humble in service. There are stories about him getting a curse so that he would forget his power. However, given the Hanumān state of mind it will in fact be considered a boon. Certainly going by his great accomplishments and virtues, and the following even today, his traits can easily be considered as footsteps of success.

Hanumān Syndrome

Hanumān ji’s humility and determination are considered part of his real character that led him to win any mission he embarked upon. In the infinite states of consciousness, most people are focused on only limited tracks of the consciousness, and are in fact not aware of the existence (ego) of the other domains of their consciousness until they are reminded of by someone they believe and trust, such as parents, teachers, guru, etc.

Children and students are particularly vulnerable to the hidden capacity and potential unknown to them. This is the Hanumān syndrome that the whole humanity suffers from. This syndrome is treated by only wise and caring teachers or elders, who remove the syndrome with inspiration and infusion of courage through a series of steps to build confidence via knowledge and practice. This is what was done by Jāmvant, represented by as a Rikshraj and mānsputra of Brahmā, the creator of the universe. Jāmvant is not an ordinary bear, rather an individual with power and adaptability of a bear. He along with Hanumān and Paraśurām has distinction of being present in both Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata time. In other words, for Hanumān syndrome to be removed, an extraordinary teacher or guru is needed, by awakening the hidden consciousness.

Hanumān Approach

Once the Hanumān syndrome is treated, a person can achieve extraordinary feats. There is nothing that such an individual cannot do. Their approach becomes that of in improvisation rather than strategic and tactical. Since they are capable of doing anything they do not sit down to plan and process the goals. They actually begin to do what needs to be done, notwithstanding what may seem impossible to others. This is what Hanumān did when Lakśmana was hit with Shakti weapon of Meghnād. With Suśen (an Ayurvedic Vaidya) suggesting a prescription requiring Sanjīvanī from Himalayas in less than 12 hours, everyone is Ramā’s army had given up, except for the Hanumān free of his syndrome. He was the only one who could leap forward to Himalayas without any forethoughts, driven only by what needed to be done. He did not spend a semester learning the geography of Himalayas, asked for a GPS to reach there, or a long lesson on different types of plants, shrubs, and herbs.

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(Source of Image: https://ramleela.wordpress.com/2012/10/22/ramayana-viii-the-vanar-sena-to-the-rescue/)

He reached Himalayas after overcoming intentional hurdles thrown in his way represented by Kālanemī, which also means the perimeter of the time. Symbolically it means that Hanumān had to cross the limit of time to reach Himalayas and return. One there, he could not identify Sanjīvanī from many other medicinal herbs. He decided right then and there to bring the entire mountain so that Suśen can pick what was rightly needed. This is the Hanumān approach. Once awakened of one’s hidden capabilities, one does not look for everything favorable and in place to do one’s duty. In Hanumān approach, you do whatever is needed to accomplish the goal. If the world’s system does not allow one to do right things, then begin changing the world, whether it is for peace, food, health, equality, education, or the planet.

So, go ahead try the Hanumān approach, and let the world know the results! The Hanumān principle lives in all of us.

Prof. Bal Ram Singh, Director, School of Indic Studies, INADS, Dartmouth, USA

वेदों के प्रकाश में अपने स्त्रीत्व को खोजें व सही अर्थों में स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त करें

– Mrs. Suvrata Vinod

[ Editor’s Note – शास्त्रार्थ की संवाद शैली का प्रयोग करते हुए लेखिका ने अपने विचारों को यहाँ रखा है।]

शंका – वेद है क्या?

समाधान – वेद एक नियत शब्दराशि है।

शंका  – फिर ये शब्द दूसरे शब्दों से विशेष क्यों? इतिहास के गर्त में न जाने कितनी संस्कृतियाँ, राष्ट्र, समाज, व्यक्ति आए गए।बहुत थोडों का स्मरण शेष रहता है।वह भी अंशों में।वेद भी तो किसी के द्वारा बनाये गये थे और अत एव नष्ट हो रहे है।

समाधान – क्या सब कुछ मनुष्यकृत होना जरुरी है?

शंका – अर्थात् नही।

समाधान – तो सब वाक्य मनुष्यकृत होना जरुरी है?

शंका – हाँ।

समाधान -क्या कोई मनुष्य बिना किसी का वाक्य सुने, वाक्योच्चारण करते देखा गया है?

शंका – नही।परंतु पुरा काल में ऐसा हुआ होगा।

समाधान – अदृष्टपूर्वकल्पना बिना हेतु के करना अंधश्रद्धा है।फिर देखो जीवित कोष से ही कोषांतर देख रहे हो, मान भी रहे हो। ऐसे ही गुरु के पूर्वोच्चारण से शिष्य का अनूच्चारण होता है ऐसा दीख रहा है। फिर सदा से ऐसा हो रहा है ऐसा मानने में क्या आपत्ति है। इन वेदवाक्यों को गुरुशिष्य परंपरा से अत्यंत पवित्रता व परिश्रम से हृदयाकाश में सुरक्षित रक्खा जाता है। वेद किसी लिखित-मुद्रित पुस्तक का नाम नही है।वेद गुरु के हृदय में निवास करते है। उपदेशद्वारा गुरु उसे शिष्य के हृदय में संक्रामित करते है। तब शिष्य भी गुरु होने योग्य हो जाता है। जो वेदों को हृदय में धारण करते है उन्हें हम वेदवित् कहते है। ऐसे व्यक्ति के लिए उसके अपने राग-द्वेष, likes-dislikes, अच्छा-बुरा एक तरफऔर दुसरी तरफ वेदों के विधि-निषेध दोनों ही सामने उपस्थित होते हैं। यही पर पुरुषार्थ का अवसर है जो हमे प्रत्येक व्यक्ति में भिन्न भिन्न स्तर का ज्ञात होता है। जिसके पास पूर्ण स्वातंत्र्य हो उसे सिद्ध वा स्थितप्रज्ञ कहा जाता है।

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन्।आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति। श्रीमद्भगवदगीता २.६४

(राग और द्वेष से वियुक्त होकर विषयों का इंद्रिय से ग्रहण करते हुए, उन इंद्रियों को अपने वश ऱखते हुए, न कि उनके दास बनकर, जो व्यक्ति शास्त्रविधि से प्रेरित होकर कार्य करता है वह प्रसन्नता को पाता है। )

यह स्वतंत्रता ही आर्य जीवन में श्रेष्ठता का मापदंड है। जिसमें यह स्वतंत्रता नहीवत् होती है उसे दूसरों के द्वारा नियंत्रित करना आवश्यक हो जाता है। एवं जो व्यक्ति राग-द्वेषों पर नियंत्रण रखते हुए विधि-निषेध का पालन कर सके वह दूसरों को अपने अधीन रखने की योग्यता पाता है। विचारशील व्यक्ति को स्वयं के राग-द्वेष तो विना उपदेश स्वयमेव ज्ञात होते है परंतु विधि-निषेध का ज्ञान तो मनुष्यमात्र को उपदेश से ही प्राप्त होता है।

शंका – उपदेश ग्रहण करने की योग्यता वा पात्रता क्या है?

समाधान – पवित्र वेदों के धारण के लिए योग्य शिष्य चाहिए। जैसे पानी भरने के लिए मजबुत साफ घडा चाहिए।

नाविरतो दुश्चरितान्नाशान्तो नासमाहितः। कठोपनिषद् २.२४

(दुश्चरित से जो बाज नही आया, जो शान्त और समाहित-चित्त नही है, वह केवल प्रज्ञान से उसे (परमात्मा को) नही पा सकता।) 

तदेतत् सत्यमृषिरंगिराः पुरोवाच नैतदचीर्णव्रतोऽधीते। मुण्डकोपनिषद् ३.२.११

(इस (औपनिषदिक आत्म) सत्य को ऋषि अंगिरा ने पहले कहा, इसे वह व्यक्ति न पढे जिसने व्रताचरण न कर लिया हो।) 

तस्मै स विद्वानुपसन्नाय सम्यक् प्रशान्तचित्ताय शमान्विताय प्रोवाच। मुण्डकोपनिषद् १.२.१३

(विद्वान् गुरु उसे उपदेश करे जो पास रहकर सेवा करता है, जिसका चित्त ठीक से शान्त है और जिसकी वासना भी शमन हो गई है।) 

यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यन्त्यचेतसः। श्रीमद्भगवदगीता १५.११

(प्रयत्न करते हुए भी, जिसने अपने कर्तव्य को पुरा नही किया है, वैसे मूढ जन उसे (परमात्मा को) नही देखते।) 

शंका – कहाँ से आयेगा ऐसा शिष्य?

समाधान -परमेश्वर ने यह दायित्व स्त्री को दिया है।

मातृमान् पितृमान् आचार्यवान् पुरुषो वेद। बृहदारण्यकोपनिषद् ४.१.२-७

उत्तम माता, उत्तम पिता और श्रेष्ठ गुरु हो जिसका वही पुरुष उसे (परमात्मा को) जानता है। 

माता पतिव्रता यस्य पिता यस्य शुचिव्रतः। वाल्मीकि रामायण

माता जिसकी पतिव्रता हो और पिता जिसका शुचिव्रत अर्थात् वेदानुयायी है, उसी का मन ललचाता नही है। 

वह क्या है जो स्त्री के पास विशेष है? क्या में इस बहुमूल्य योग्यता को पहिचानती हूँ? क्या मैं इसका सही मूल्य कर पा रही हूँ? इसे संजोए रखने के लिए कुछ त्याग करने को भी तैयार हूँ?

शंका -आप किस बारे में बात कर रहे है हमें नहीं पता।

समाधान -यूरोप अमेरिका में 50 % स्त्रियाँ विवाह करना ही नहीं चाहती।क्या आजकल इंद्रिय-संयम ब्रह्मचर्य बहुत आसान हो गया है? 16 साल से कम उम्र में ही 90% से अधिक कन्याएं अपने कौमार्य को खो देती है।क्या हम भी इनके पिछे चल नहीं रहे? हमारी वेशभूषा तो कुछ ऐसा ही कह रही है।

शंका – क्या ऐसा होने से योग्य शिष्य पैदा नहीं हो सकेंगे? आजकल तो सब बहुत चमक-धमक वाला दीखता है।चारों ओर सुंदर-सुंदर स्त्री-पुरुष।कितना मनोहारी दृश्य है।कितने रंग! कितने स्वाद! कितनी सुगंध! इतनी विविधता प्रचुरता क्या पहले कभी थी? विज्ञान ने हर क्षेत्र मे नई ऊँचाईयों को छु लिया है। हमारे कई प्रश्नों के उत्तर दिये है। मानव आज अधिक सामर्थ्यवान् है।

समाधान – बिलकुल ठीक।मेरे अपने अनुभव से गत 30-40 वर्षों में हम बहुत बदल गये है। हमारे सही-गलत के मापदंड ही परिवर्तीत हो गये। कई बाते जो पूर्व में निंदात्मक थी वे आज प्रतिष्ठित है।जैसे मदिरापान, विवाहपूर्व संबंध, भ्रष्टाचार-रिश्वतखोरी।सर्वत्र दोगला व्यवहार दीख रहा है।अंदर एक बाहर एक।हमारे मापदंड तो परिवर्तनशील है पर क्या प्रकृति के मापदंड भी बदलते है। और अगर प्रकृति के मापदंड नही बदलते तो क्या हम अब सिर्फ नाम के फलाना-फलाना रह गये। संज्ञामात्र! वस्तु बदल गयी लेबल पुराना। प्रश्न है, वेद को धारण करना, आत्मज्ञान प्राप्त करना, इसकी योग्यता पात्रता हमारे मापदंड बदलने मात्र से क्या बदल जायेंगी? क्या पोथी-पुस्तक पढ कर पंडित हो जा सकता है क्या? शुद्धचित्तता हमारी कल्पना का विषय नहीं अपितु नितांत वास्तविकता है जैसे की सुवर्ण की सुवर्णता। हमारे purity standard घटाने मात्र से क्या सुवर्ण अपने स्वरूप को पा सकता है? यदि नहीं, तो हमे याद रखना होगा की वेदों को धारण करने की योग्यता भी हमें यथार्थ में प्राप्त करनी पडेगी। ऐसे अधिकारी शिष्य को जन्म देना और उसका संगोपन करके पिता एवं अनन्तर आचार्य के अधीन करना यह स्त्री का अनन्य कर्तव्य है।

women-body

(Source of image: https://www.menstrupedia.com/articles)

क्या हमे सोचना चाहिये कि नारी स्वतंत्रता हमे कौन सिखा रहा है।क्या हमारे सुसंस्कृत समाज को इसकी जरूरत थी।कहते है-

न स्त्री स्वातंत्र्यमर्हति । मनुस्मृति

स्त्री को यथोचित पुरुष को पुछे बिना कार्य नही करना चाहिए। 

यह अन्याय है। परंतु स्त्री ही नहीं धर्म किसी को भी स्वतंत्र मनमाना व्यवहार करने की अनुमति नही देता।

कः स्वतंत्रः यः ईश्वरतंत्रः।कः परतंत्रः यः इन्द्रियतंत्रः ।मधुसूदन सरस्वती

कौन स्वतंत्र है? जो ईश्वर के अधीन है। कौन परतंत्र है? जो इंद्रियों के अधीन है।

या तो आप साक्षात् वेद को धारण कर आत्मानुशासन में रहें या…। पर समाज में बहुत कम लोगों की यह काबिलियत होती है। इसलिए अधिकांश लोगों को उन आत्मानुशासित वेदपुरुष के मार्गदर्शन में रहने को कहा।जो कि निरहंकार भाव से देखने पर आसान विकल्प है सुखकर भी। If benefit is the same then why carry the burden of freedom.जो तो आत्मनियंत्रण से अथवा स्वेच्छा से किसी के नियंत्रण में रहकर प्रकृति के नियमों का पालन करते हुए निर्दिष्ट दायित्वों का निर्वाह करता है वह उन दायित्वों से मुक्त होकर अधिकाधिक आनन्द अनुभव करता है।इसके विपरीत स्वेच्छाचारी अधिकाधिक बंधनों मे जकड़ता चला जाता है।

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत्।आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः।।बन्धुरात्मात्मनस्तस्य येनात्मैवात्मना जितः।आत्मनस्तु शत्रुत्वे वर्तेतात्मैव शत्रुवत्।।जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः। श्रीमद्भगवदगीता 6.5-6

अपना उद्धार करे न की अपने आप को गिरा दे। स्वयं ही अपना बंधु है, जिसने अपने आप को जीत लिया। अन्य व्यक्ति जिसका इंद्रिय एवं चित्त स्वयं के वश में नही है, वह तो स्वयं ही स्वयं का शत्रु है। जितात्म-प्रसन्नचित्त व्यक्ति के परमात्मा सदैव पास ही है। 

आइये! वेदों के प्रकाश मे अपने स्त्रीत्व को खोजे व सही अर्थों मे स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त करे।

– Mrs. Suvrata Vinod, Anandavan Bhakta Samudaya, Institute of Advanced Studies in Veda and Science.

वासन्ती पर्व ’होली’

 – डॉ. शशि तिवारी

guj

हमारी कृषि-व्यवस्था दो भागों में बँटी है―(1) वैशाखी, (2) कार्तिकी। इसी को क्रमश: वासन्ती और शारदीय फसलें कहते हैं। फाल्गुन पूर्णमासी वासन्ती फसल का आरम्भ है। होली पर्व का एक प्राचीन नाम ’वासन्ती नवसस्येष्ट’ है। यह मूलतया वसन्त ऋतु में नये अनाजों से किये जाने वाले यज्ञ कर्म (इष्टि) का नाम है। हमारी वैदिक परम्परा है कि  नवान्न को सर्वप्रथम अग्निदेव को समर्पित करते हैं, तत्पश्चात् स्वयं भोग करते हैं। वसन्त ऋतु में चना, मटर, अरहर एवं जौ आदि अनेक अन्न पक चुकते हैं। अत: उनको देवों को समर्पित करते हैं। चारों वर्ण परस्पर मिलकर इस विशाल यज्ञ को सम्पन्न करते हैं। आहुति देते हैं और परिक्रमा करतॆ हैं, यह यज्ञ की प्रक्रिया ही है।

संस्कॄत की परिभाषा ’तृणाग्निं भ्रष्टार्धपक्वशमी धान्य: होलक:’ के अनुसार तिनके की अग्नि में भुने हुए अधपके धान्य (फली वाले अन्न) को होलक कहते हैं। होली शब्द होलक से बना है। इसी कारण इस पर्व को ’होली’ या ’होलिकोत्सव’ कहते है। होली नवान्न वर्ष का प्रतीक है। लॊग प्रतिवर्ष सामूहिक रूप से होली जलाते हैं।

holi

(Source of Image : httpswww.jansatta.comlifestyleholi-2018)

ऋतुओं का सन्धिकाल रोग उत्पन्न करता हैं । होली का समय हेमन्त और बसन्त ऋतु का योग है। रोग-निवारण के लिए यज्ञ उत्तम साधन है। अत: होली जलने का संबन्ध फसलों के साथ-साथ ऋतु-परिवर्तन से भी है।

एक पौराणिक कथा होली जलाने को भगवान् से जोडती है―होलिका हिरण्यकश्यपु नामक राक्षस की बहिन थी। उसे यह वरदान था कि वह आग में नहीं जलेगी। हिरण्यकश्यपु का प्रह्लाद नाम का बालक पुत्र था जो विष्णु की पूजा करता था। पर हिरण्यकश्यपु पुत्र को रोकता था कि “तू विष्णु की  पूजा न कर मेरी पूजा किया कर“। जब वह नहीं माना तो हिरण्यकश्यपु ने होलिका को आदेश दिया कि वह प्रह्लाद को आग में लेकर बैठ जाये। होलिका प्रह्लाद को गोद में लेकर आग में बैठ गई,  वह जल गई और प्रह्लाद बच गया। तब से प्रह्लाद, होलिका तथा विष्णु की कथा की स्मृति में होली का त्यौहार मनाया जाता है l

होली उत्सव एवं यज्ञ का सांस्कृतिक प्रतीक है। स्वयं को प्रकॄति से जोड़ने का पर्व है।

आप सभी को इस उत्सव की हार्दिक शुभकामनायें।

डॉ. शशि तिवारी,अध्यक्ष, वेव्स -भारत 

Mahā Śivarātri

kamlesh

– Mrs. Kamlesh Kapur

Worship of Śiva as part of Holy Trinity

Śivarātri is celebrated by all Hindus. Many Hindus go to the temple and spend the evening singing devotional songs. Some celebrate it in home temple observing fast and doing prayers. The main places where this festival is celebrated with great pomp are at the twelve Jyotir Lingas—Śiva temples. These are at Kedarnath, Varanasi, Vaidynath, Ujjain (Avanti), Somnath, Dwaraka, Omkareshwar, Trimbakeshwar, Ghrishneshwar, Srisailam, Bhimashankar, and Rameshweram. For Hindus, these are the place for pilgrimage.

Many Hindus believe that Śiva as the life force is the creator of the universe. They believe in the ancient saying, “The creation is neither characterized by Lotus (the emblem of Brahma) nor by the Chakra (the emblem of Vishnu) nor by the Vajra (the emblem of Indra). Therefore, all creations are born of Maheshwara.” (Ganapati: Song of the Self by John A. Grimes)

Ten Praanas and atman are eleven Rudras mentioned by Yajanvalkya in Upanishad. The same are also mentioned in Yajurveda. As ten Rudras and the atman enters a living being, life begins. As these depart, life ends for that person. Rudras being good and mangalmai (auspicious) are known as Śiva or Śivam. Below is the picture of Lord Śiva as Nataraja. In Tamilnadu, India, there is a temple at Chidambaram. It is believed that at this place, Śiva performed the dance of creation. There are beautifully sculpted figures showing 108 postures and mudras (hand gestures) of Śiva’s dance.

Procedure and Ceremony on Śivarātri

Devas are invited. Śiva is invited. Yajna is performed by the community. Offerings are made with chants. Devotees sing devotional music. Ceremony ends with peace prayer. On Śivarātri, Hindus pray to the pillar of light for strength to keep peace within and in the world. Śiva manifested Himself as a pillar of light/ fire. Students may remember that the light in Hindu tradition refers to enlightenment, knowledge, vision, good speech, and wisdom. On the darkest night of the month in February, Śiva appears as the pillar of light to end ignorance. Ignorance gives birth to anger, violence, untruth, conflict, and darkness. All these are dark forces disturbing not only a person’s mental peace, but these forces also destroy peace in the society and in the nation.

Prayers are offered for the well-being of all the people in the world:

Asdo ma sad gamyo, tamso ma joyitir gamyo

Mrityor mam amritam gamyo

Sarve bhavantu sukhinah, sarve santu niramya

Sarve bhadarani pachyantu ma kaschit dukha bhagbhavet

Karpur Gouram karunavtaram, samsara saram bhujgendra haaram,

Sada vasantam, hrideya arvinde, bhavam Bhawani sahitam namami

On Śivarātri, during the prayer ceremony, usually, eleven kalashas (earthen round pots with water) are placed in a circle, symbolizing ten Praanas. The eleventh kalasha, the symbol of the Atman is placed in the middle.

In Kalahasti temple at Varanasi, the puja is performed showing the hand of time moving. In creation, transformation, and destruction, it is the hand of time that carries us forward. Thus, Śiva Linga is that pillar of two tattavas (elements) responsible for the formation of the earth and its atmosphere.

Śivalinga

The most popular form worshipped is the Śivalinga. Śivalinga is the bottomless pillar of light. In the beginning, there was only space; then a lighted pillar appeared—the echo sounded as the vibration of Aum, air (Vayuh) filled the atmosphere. The friction caused fire (Agni). In one of the Yajurvedic mantras, this pillar of light is referred to as Svastambhitam. It is believed that this happened on the day of Śivarātri. Śivarātri, that is, Śiva’s Night, is the famous festival in honor of Lord Śiva. The pillar has no base, for the space has no beginning or end. At best we can compare it with a shooting star. The light appeared and vanished having created the two tattavas (elements of air and fire), essential elements for sustaining life. There is a sculptured fresco of this stambha in the ASI archives. During the Indus-Sarasvati age (5000 BC to 1900 BC), people offered prayers to Śivalinga.

Below is the picture of Śivalinga

shivalinga

Linga means a pillar (stambha)- a pillar of light Linga means a “mark” in Sanskrit. It is a symbol that points to an inference. For he is the life force, the air we breathe. The pillar of light arising from Agni, the fire, and fanned by the pure air makes the shape of Śivalinga. In the evolution of elements, air fills the space followed by fire making the unfathomable base of the pillar, and thus, together they complete the basic sustenance for life on earth. Hindus worship this pillar as Śivalinga, knowing fully well that Śiva is unfathomable and formless. He has no form of his own, and yet all forms are his forms. Śiva is everywhere all the time. Stark and geometric, the linga is meant to represent, in an abstract fashion, a pillar. As a pillar, it stands for Śiva as the axis of existence, which Hindus believe extends from the Absolute to the everyday world. From this axis, the world is born, and it is to this axis that it will return to before complete annihilation at the end of time (end of the kalpa).

“Every form is the form or Linga of Lord Śiva. The Linga is only the outward symbol of the formless being, Lord Śiva—Lord Śiva incarnate, who is the indivisible, all-pervading, eternal, auspicious, ever-pure, immortal essence of this vast universe, who is the undying soul seated in the chambers of one’s heart, who is one’s Indweller, innermost Self or Atman and who is identical with the Supreme Brahman.”

There is also the literary evidence of puja of this stambha in Valmiki’s Ramayana. Ravana prayed to Śiva for a long time, and then he wanted to take him along with the Kailash Mountain. He shook it hard and was able to take an elongated piece of the rock, which he thought was the essence of Śiva’s being. Ravana started the puja of this stambha. Sri Rama also performed puja of this stambha before crossing the ocean. This story is sculpted in part at Kailash cave 16 at Ellora. Worked from top to bottom, the temple happens to be the largest monolithic temple made out of one rock. Ravana’s chariot is also carved. This archaeological evidence also reveals the idea of the Stambha. Long pillar, if constructed needs a base, and the base is in the diya; the combination of Vayu and Agni was thus completed. Artists down the ages created amazing pieces of art using diverse art media. Though early paintings did not survive the ravages of time and the invasions, cave temples, frescoes, rock temples and bronze statues have survived.

Here is another picture of Śiva created by the artists.

siva 1

Śiva is sitting in yogic posture. The river Ganges is falling from his hair. He has snakes around his neck, blue patch of poison on the throat, moon on his forehead; and his third eye is closed. A yogi is not afraid of the obstacles. In Hindu tradition, snakes usually symbolize worries, negative emotions, temptations, and obstacles. The blue patch on the throat is poison. A yogi digests the good and the bad equally well. Because of the blue patch on his throat, he is also called Nilakantha. The river Ganges is known as Sursari, which means its origin is Devaloka (associated with the cloud system or the atmosphere). The river may not descend with the full destructive force; so Śiva releases it slowly. The abode of Śiva is Mount Kailash in the Himalayas. Snow is the symbol of purity and austerity of mind. Thus, through this symbol, several concepts are connected—the origin of the Ganges from the Himalayas, the rainwater swelling the river and the rain originating from the cloud system. Śiva’s eyes are half closed, which indicates even though he is in meditation, he is aware of the material world. Śiva’s third eye signifies the eye of wisdom. Śiva is worshipped as Śiva and Parvati. He is also worshipped as Nataraja: King of Dance or Simply Dancing Śiva.

Below is another picture of Śiva as Nataraja which symbolizes Kaal and Mahakaal:

siva 2

Śiva as the king of dance shows the rhythmic cycle of birth, transformation, and death of life. It also signifies that the world as we see today may not be there at the end of the kalpa. Both the Creation and the annihilation are an integral part of all life. The upper right hand has tabor (dummaroo), which symbolizes the sound of creation. The lower right hand is raised in half-moon gesture, the upper left hand has flame of destruction in its palm, and the lower left hand is showering blessings. One leg is raised indicating remaining above the material world, and the other leg presses hard on all that is negative and evil.The late astrophysicist, Carl Sagan (1934-1996) in his book, Cosmos, asserts that the Dance of Nataraja (Tandava) signifies the cycle of evolution and destruction of the cosmic universe. Carl Sagan further says, “The most elegant and sublime of these is a representation of the creation of the universe at the beginning of each cosmic cycle, a motif known as the cosmic dance of Lord Śiva. The God called in this manifestation Nataraja, the Dance King. In the upper right hand is a drum whose sound is the sound of creation. In the upper left hand is a tongue of flame, a reminder that the universe, now newly created, will billions of years from now be utterly destroyed.”

No matter, how we worship, Śiva is the ultimate reality of the cosmic reality as well as the life circle of all life anywhere and everywhere.

 Mrs. Kamlesh Kapur, Author and Educator, USA

India: A Concept of Nationhood (Part-II)

Continued from Part-I

Dr. Raj Kumar

The Vedic phase is very significant and influential in the evolution of Indian society. It affects its cultural, socio-economic and social-political tradition. Although, there is a prolonged debate on the Aryan influence on Indian society, nothing conclusive could be presented. Some social activists view Aryans as a native of India, whereas several scholars and academic historians’ opinions are opposite. Whatever the view, Aryans evolved the tribal society to a well-developed civilization. Development of civilization provides the people a cohesive environment for discussion, and the people start looking for the answer of the fundamental questions. Every other civilization of the world meditated upon some fundamental questions for a long time; a) how to live life, b) what is the goal of life, and c) what is the way to find happiness. The idea of India provided a unique path to get the answer to these fundamental questions. As an Indian, our traditional goal of life is a virtue (Dharma), live with success and wealth (Artha), to live with pleasure (Kama), but in the end seek enlightenment (Moksha). Vedic philosophy also discussed several ideas; idea of consciousness, idea of humanity, idea of ethics in social life, idea of spirituality, and more importantly the idea of individuality (for example, Shrimad Bhagavad Gita tells your interpretation of life is different from others, but it doesn’t mean you are wrong or others are wrong. Similarly, Ayurveda treats a person based on their personal traits and habits, instead of using any generalization). These ideas influenced the thought process of the people of the region and shaped the idea of India.

The founding concept of India was not just an abstract idea of a plurality or an idea of a common interest. It is an idea of practical understanding of the compulsion and constraints, yet accommodative, between differing ideas and views. Now, let’s examine the characteristics of India as a nation.

Let’s define nation first. In my view, the best definition is provided by Ernest Renan’s. According to him, “A nation is not formed on the basis of dynasty, language, religion, geography or shared interests. Rather, a nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. A spiritual principle is a combination of two things, which in truth are one. One lies in the past i.e. the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories. Other lies in the present, which reflects the desire to live together, and perpetuate the value system and continue the heritage that one has received in an undivided form.” The idea of India exactly fits this definition. So many people of different value system, cultural system, belief system, and interests are coming together to develop an Idea of India. Probably only place in the world where we have preserved the traditions which were practiced thousands of years ago (rich legacy), yet all Indian together try to compete with the modern world (perpetuate the value system and desire to live together). Like any other nation, India also has gone through turbulent times. Even in those turbulent times, instead of hankering for purity, India gave some very powerful ideas to this world….. the idea of accommodation, the idea of incorporation, the idea of inclusion, the idea of embracing, and the idea of mixing without losing the basic character. She sees the moment of mixing as the most creative and imaginative one. She sees the moment of mixing as an opportunity to create the culture of give and take, and ultimately become one. So, the idea of India is not an abstract idea of just cultural pluralism and democracy, it is an idea of amalgamation of different ideas.

c

This amalgamation gave diversity to Indian system. Scientifically speaking this process increases the entropy/randomness, which all the thermodynamic systems aspire to. Energy is constant in an entropy-driven process. So, we need to know how to utilize this energy in a useful way. That is why increasing entropy can be advantageous and disadvantageous, too. Advantageous when you know how to utilize this excess entropy and balance the system, and disadvantageous when you don’t know how to control the randomness. I will use an example to simplify the above statement. Protein folding, a biological process, is a very important event when the linear sequence of amino acid organizes different interactions to devise a biologically functional shape. In this process, entropy is decreasing to create a useful structure. While acquiring a biological function from linear sequence, protein has two very important intermediate stages, molten globule and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). These two states are very flexible (higher randomness) and when needed can acquire a biologically functional state (entropically low structure). In another way, randomness is a necessary requirement but to perform function system needs to be organized. Randomness provides flexibility and fluidity, which is a necessary trait of our existence, and the idea of India already have this naturally.

You must have heard this statement ….. India is a very diverse country and its diversity is an asset. But nobody explains what is the meaning of this statement. Diversity means randomness, which is natural tendencies of anything in this world. It brings freedom; freedom of thought, freedom of action, and freedom of expression. Freedom is not the one-way road, it is a two-way path; one way is freedom, and another concurrent way is responsibility/onus/liability. Diversity in scientific terms is a degree of freedom, more degree of freedom more available options. More options mean more ways of doing things. In other words, different things can be done in a coordinated way to achieve the same goal. Therefore, in this sense diversity of India is an asset, but we need to know how to utilize it, we need to know how and where to direct this diversity, and we need to know how to fulfill our responsibilities and contribute to advancing the idea of India. One successful example of focusing diversity is the United State of America (USA). The USA has accepted people from all over the world, which gave her an asset of diversity. She utilized this diversity very smartly and focused to build a strong nation. India needs to do the same.

Thus, the idea of India is not a hypothetical one, it is a geographically, socially, philosophically, and scientifically proven idea. India’s diversity needs to be crystalized, so that the nation can move forward together in a constructive way. We did this very successfully in the past on several occasions, we need to do it again now to solve our current problems.

We are all pieces of the same puzzle.

References

  1. The Vedic Core of Human History by M. K. Agarwal, 2013.
  2. Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities by Atish Sinha, Madhup Mohta and Foreign Service Institute, 2007.
  3. ArunKumar, G., Soria-Hernanz, D. F., Kavitha, V. J., Arun, V. S., Syama, A., Ashokan, K. S., … The Genographic Consortium. (2012). Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System. PLoS ONE7(11), e50269. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050269.
  4. https://www.ibm.com/solutions/genographic/us/en/geno_story.html

 – Dr. Raj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA.