A human Being plays a central role in all its interactions with surroundings consisting of both animate and inanimate objects. With a view to understanding the finer details of these interactions and the associated relations in a scientific spirit, a philosophical atom-like model (termed as ‘patomic’ model of human Being), proposed by one of us (RSK), has already been in use now for quite some time. The model is designed after getting an inspiration from the revered wisdom of Srimad-Bhagwad-Gita (SMBG) –
इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः।।3.42।।
भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च।
अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा।।7.4।।
To explore further, the underlying psychophysics and psychochemistry in these interactions, we briefly revisit this model here, The main ingredients of this model have a direct bearing on the celebrated and successful Bohr atomic model of matter which is postulated to represent the positively charged nucleus (consisting of protons and neutrons) at the centre, with the negatively charged electrons moving around it in well-defined discrete (quantised) elliptical orbits; these electrons can make transitions to higher or lower orbits representing fixed energy levels depending on whether the electron gains or loses energy.
Following exactly the same underlying principle and prescriptions, we extend the analogy to what has come to be recognised as the patomic model (‘p’ signifying philosophical) which stipulates consideration of a minimal number of essences of life (EOLs). (Essences of life basically are the entities associated with a living Being whose functionality justifies the existence of the latter). While a detailed and exhaustive treatment is available elsewhere*, it would suffice here to mention that a plausible understanding of the proliferating aspects of human relations is expected to be achieved by judicious application of this model.
As per SMBG, the human being is considered as an inseparable part of the totality of realities, quite unlike the case of objective sciences, particularly of physical science in which the physical laws are found to work well only for a closed system and in the absence of will-power – a specific feature of a living Being. The property of closure essentially means that if different attributes of a system are combined either through addition or multiplication or any other specified binary operation then the resultant must necessarily be part of the system. Since will-power/consciousness has not yet found an acceptable mathematical basis, it cannot be considered as part of the set of attributes, simply put, a system is said to be closed when it does not interact with its surroundings. In the proposed patomic model, the nucleus is now being identified with worldly objects (WO) and different energy levels with the various EOLs. Our main efforts have been directed to develop and to investigate the concepts of relations between two and among more than two persons, socialization of persons in the form of groups and subgroups (or, castes and sub-castes), as well as love as a binding force between and among human beings.
In the background of an interaction, the energy exchange occurs in a discretized (quantum) form. Quality of exchanged energy also defines the characteristics of the interacting objects. All known physical forces are still gross and not subtle as the subtlest possible cosmic consciousness field or cosmic essence of Vedic science. In case of interacting animate objects, it is the consciousness that offers the background for conscious interactions of inner (mind, intellect and ego) or outer (biological body and senses of knowledge and action) EOLs.
We are all blessed with a biological body (B) consisting of inner and outer organs endowed with ten senses of knowledge and action (SE) (five senses of knowledge or perception are eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin, respectively sensitive to light, sound, smell, taste and touch, and five senses of actions or motor organs are hands, feet, speech, anus and copulatory organ). In conjunction with the stimuli from the worldly object (WO), they constitute the set of outer EOLs. The other set of inner EOLs consists of mind (M), intellect (I) and ego (self-sense) (E) which are, respectively, responsible for defining the faculties of ‘emotion’, ‘decision’ and ‘memory’ inside the human Being. Notably, as per SMBG, they all are like inanimate objects but work and become functional only in the presence of another nonphysical element called ‘consciousness’ that originates from what is termed as ‘soul’ (SO)- the innermost existence present in a Being and cannot be denied. A human Being (b) (also called ‘Jiva’ or life principle) is a composite entity of all these inner and outer EOLs who, while having a strong base in SO, works consistently in the field of WO.
The arrangement of these EOLs in a human Being is shown in the Figure. Here, the nucleus WO occupies the centre of the discrete (energy) states, whereas B, SE, M, I and E are placed around it in accordance with their increasing fineness and the strength of the meditation. Much beyond the state E it is all continuum of SO. Note that this gradation of various states, in which an electron-like object b can stay and accordingly perform upward and downward transitions, is on the scale of meditation and not with respect to the physical space-time. Further, while upward transitions of b are rare, downward transitions are natural and more frequent. Note that such an arrangement of EOLs in a human Being that includes the role of SO in it, is subject to an all-pervading and the finest possible ‘cosmic consciousness field’(Φcc) spread all over space and time. As a matter of fact, the SO associated with an individual can be considered as a discrete (or, a ‘second quantized’) version of the continuum Φcc in the language of quantum field theory. In analogy with physical theories, such considerations, in fact, suggest some kind of cosmic connections of a Being, b, with the cosmos. Not only this, there is a clear support for the existence of such a cosmic consciousness field from SMBG-
न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत्…..इन्द्रियार्थान्विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते।।3.5-6।।
and Rigvedic verses in the form of ‘Sristi’–
पुरूष् एवेदं सर्व यद्भ तं यच्च भव्यम्…. (10.90.2)
प्रजापते न त्वदेतान्यन्यो विश्वा जातानि परि ता वभूव…..(10.121.10)
तम आसीत् तमसा गूलहमग्नेऽप्रकेतं सलिलं सर्वमा इदम्…..(10.129.3)
इयं विसृष्टिर्यत आबभूव यदि वा दधे यदि वा न…..(10.129.7)
As for the discrete sub-energy-levels in an atom, here we have traced other alternative for this kind of discretization in terms of the repeated dressing of the trio of inner EOLs M, I and E with consciousness. The same is expressed through some kind of symbolic recurrence relations. (The dressing rules for the inner EOLs are designed in accordance with the panci–karan rule for panca mahābhūtās). This leads to infinitely many discrete sub-levels of each of M, I and E, which are unequally spaced (see figure below). This kind of extension of patomic model makes it more viable for studying the role of a variety of emotions, reasoning and memories with reference to human behaviour and relations.
In conclusion, we would like to emphasize that we have made a modest attempt to highlight the efficacy of the patomic model in understanding the complex nature of interactions and relations among human Beings, within the general framework of the celebrated Vedanta Philosophy and driven by the main motivation to accord a scientific basis to the minimal set of various EOLs that enter into the formulation of the model. Some of the other aspects that are pursued can be listed as follows:
1. Two-, three-, and many- human Being interactions are investigated in this scheme of study. The art and science of integrating body, mind and soul are studied with reference to a personality. For example, the interactions pertaining to husband-wife, two good friends, teacher-taught, etc. for the two Beings; mother-father-child, trio of business partners, husband-wife and third person, etc., for three beings are analysed at the most fundamental level in terms of variety of exchanges or quanta of interactions (tanmātras).
2. A basis for assigning the relations and forming groups, subgroups and castes in a society is sought by considering exchanges of ‘tanmātrās’ (quanta of human interactions). Several new ‘tanmātrās’ are postulated and subsequently analysed to resolve the complexities of human relations.
3. The role of love is analysed in human relations at various levels of exchanges, similar to the one played by the three guṇas in personality traits. Unlike the atomic chemistry where valence particle (outside-out) exchanges first and creates bonds, here however EOLs exchange in an in-side-out manner, i.e., starting with the B, SE,.., the interactions continue up to the SO level. The relations accordingly become increasingly stronger. Depending upon which of the guṇas – tamas, rajas or sattva, dominates the interacting personalities, accordingly demoniac, human or divine love starts manifesting in the relations.
Finally, we must admit that appropriate revisions/modifications in terms of both mathematical exactitude as well as different emerging trends of interpretations of the Vedanta Philosophy must necessarily be incorporated into the theoretical framework for better understanding of the interactions and relations among human Beings.
[*R. S. Kaushal, “The Science of Philosophy”, (2011), D. K. Printworld, New Delhi]
Dr. D. Parashar* and Dr. R. S. Kaushal**, *Formerly Associate Professor, Department of Physics, A.R.S.D. College, and **Formerly UGC Research Professor, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi