Homa Organic Farming for Sustainability and Climate Change Adaptation (Part-I)

Brief Resume-page-001

– Sh. Anand Gaikwad

The methodology of organic farming, “Chaitanya Krishi” based on Vedic Sciences (Homa organic farming) was adapted and got further evolved by the farm situated on the bank of river Barvi and situated in the village known as Dahagaon, Tal. Kalyan, Dist. Thane, Maharashtra State. Organic farming has started on this farm since 1998. In July 2010, a Resonance Point for performance of Agnihotra was established and since then the methodology of Homa organic farming i.e. “Chaitanya Krishi” based on Vedic agricultural sciences/Vedic Parampara or Indian Traditional Agricultural Heritage has been undertaken for scientific development. In August 2014, the Maharashtra State Government has recognized the owner (Shri Anand Gaikwad) of this farm with a prestigious award “Krishi Bhushan Sendriya Sheti-2013” for Organic Farming.

After establishment of Resonance Point, for performing Agnihotra and other Yajnas, in July 2010, the development of this methodology on a scientific basis have undertaken on this farm. A fusion of Biodynamic farming practices (like use of BD 500, BD 501, preparation of BD compost, CPP etc) and Homa farming can bring the best from both to deal with the problems of pollution and for improvement in the soil health and vitality of food. In agriculture the two spheres which need judicious management are, “Biosphere” and “Rhizosphere” and the methodology of this working, which has been evolved and is getting further developed at this farm, seems to offer sound agronomic practices for restoration of balance in natural resources, health of the soil and for sustainable agriculture.

The salient features of this methodology are given in this technical note.

Fundamental Principles :

  • Holistic approach for production of food.
  • Holistic Resource Management for sustainable agriculture.
  • Rhizosphere and Biosphere Management with organic farming practices for improvement in soil health, healthy plant life, animal life and human life.

Panchsheel for development of organic farming :

Acharya Vinoba Bhave’s definition of Agriculture is as under:

शेती एक सांस्कृतिक नवनिर्माण करणारी सृजनशील जीवनशैली आहे. आनंददायी कल्याणकारी संस्कृती आहे. (केवळ) धंदा नाही धर्म आहे.

Agriculture is the basis of creating permanent social order and civilization. Ecological duty of a human being is to return to nature or basically to soil that which belongs to it i.e. – biomass to earth and fruit and produce to the man. This is either through cattle to complete the nature’s cycle or by making compost and returning it back to the soil to create humus.

सुस्था भवन्तु कृषकाः धनधान्यसमन्विताःकृषिपराशर

susthā bhavantu kṛṣakāḥ dhanadhānyasamanvitāḥ – kṛṣiparāśara

“Let the farmer be happy, healthy and wealthy”

Holistic approach for production of wholesome nutrient food – Healthy Soil – Healthy Food – Healthy Life “So long as one feeds on food from unhealthy soil, the spirit will lack the stamina to free itself from the prison of body” – Rudolf Steiner, Father of Bio-dynamic Farming.

कृषिः यज्ञेन कल्पताम्। प्राणो यज्ञेन कल्पताम्। यज्ञो यज्ञेन कल्पताम्।

kṛṣi yajñena kalpatām | prāo yajñena kalpatām | yajño yajñena kalpatām |

Dev-yajñas and Bhut-yajñas should be performed by landholder for agriculture and environment (Kashyapiya Krishi Sukti).

The gospel truth about creating and keeping ecological balance through Yajña is given in Bhagvadgīta (3.14) which states as under:

अन्नाद् भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यादन्नसम्भवः।

यज्ञात् भवन्ति पर्जन्यः यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः॥

annād bhavanti bhūtāni parjanyādannasambhava |

yajñāt bhavanti parjanya yajña karmasamudbhava ||

Simply stated in proper order, it would mean:

यज्ञात् भवन्ति पर्जन्यः yajñāt bhavanti parjanya (due to yajña it rains)

पर्जन्यादन्नसम्भवः parjanyādannasambhava (rains produce food)

अन्नाद् भवन्ति annād bhavanti bhūtāni (all living beings survive on food)

agnihotra

(Source of Image: https://agnihotra.pl/en/agnihotra/)

In respect of cloud formation and Rain Induction Techniques mentioned in Śatapatha Brāhmana of Śukla Yajurveda are as follows:

अग्नेर्वै धूमः जायते agnervai dhūma jāyate {Agni/ yajña creates Water Vapours (aerosol nano particles)}

धूमात् अभ्रम् dhūmāt abhram {Water vapours (aerosol nanoparticles ) form clouds}

अभ्रात् वृष्टिः abhrāt vṛṣṭi[Clouds give rains]

“Heal the atmosphere and healed atmosphere heals you”, “Agnihotra is the basic Homa for all Homa fire practices given in the ancient Vedic Sciences of bio-energy, psychotherapy, medicine, agriculture biogenetics, climate engineering and interplanetary communication”  (Shri Vasant Paranjape in, “Homa Therapy our Last Chance”). The positive effects of Agnihotra are an outcome of simultaneous functioning of many subtle scientific principles such as, effect of chanting of specific sounds on the atmosphere and mind, energies emanating from the pyramid-shape, nutritional effect of burning of medicinal ingredients and the effects of bio-rhythms of sun, moon and natural phenomena. It provides the foundation for healthy life: fresh air, clean water, healthy soil, vital organic food and a peaceful atmosphere. It is the need of the hour and a simple solution to our global crisis that anyone can apply – Agnihotra is a simplified Dev-yajña. 

(to be continued…..)

Sh. Anand Gaikwad, Krishi Bhushan Sendriya  Sheti  M. S. & Retd. Executive Director/Company Secretary

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‘Sapta- Sindu’ the Homeland of the Rigvedic Culture – Literary Evidence

Prof. Shashi Tiwari, General Secretary, WAVES-India 

There are so many questions related to Vedic people under discussion as part of Indian history, religion, mythology and civilization. The hunt for their original land has been a particularly important topic of research among Indologists and historians since Sir William Jones’s pronouncement in 1786, in Calcutta, that ‘Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Celtic and old Persian were related languages with common source.” The whole of nineteenth century was dedicated to the study of language and literature of Vedic and ancient Sanskrit texts, where the study of dates, editions and interpretations was done. The publication of two volume of Vedic Index by A.A. Macdonell and A.B. Keith in 1912 was almost the closing work in this field. Macdonell placed the Aryan entry into India at about 1500 BC. The establishment of the notion of a common Indo- European heritage, at the beginning of British rule in India, was a powerful instrument to rule Indians, so this view was highlighted in various ways. Ironically, in 1907 came archaeological evidence from Boghszkoi (east Turkey), which established the existence of the names of the Rgvedic  deities in fourteenth century BC.

In the 1920s, the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro were discovered. Tentatively a time period of 2500 -1500 BC was assigned to these cities at that time. Since the estimated date for the end of these cities coincided with the estimated date for Aryan entry into India, it was emphasized that these cities were brought to an end by Aryan invaders. Aryan invasion was sometimes called as Aryan migration. In either case Harappans were declared as Non-Aryans. Now many historians and Sanskrit scholars are refuting these theories on the basis of various categories of evidence. They think that the Homeland of Aryans was Indian continent or Aryans themselves were Harappans.  It is understood generally that Harappan civilization began at about 3300 B.C. and takes its earliest roots at Mehrgarh. Excavation has shown that this civilization possessed a writing system, as well as a social and economic system.

In my understanding, the Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in Indian history for which we have written records.  The vast Vedic literature provides important materials to understand every aspect of the Vedic people and their views. The mantras present an extraordinary picture of culture, religion, philosophy, economics, polity, ritualistic practices and scientific knowledge of the Vedic people. It looks like such an organized and developed society based on agriculture, arts and crafts, trade and industry, education; characterized by a deep interest in nature and environment, and moved by the spiritual urge. These facts have been proven in my earlier papers written on agriculture, economics, architecture, birds, animals, food, ornaments, weapons, society and education of the Vedic people.  In the entire Vedic literature, the authors of Vedas never say a single word about their migration or invasion. Rather they indicate their stable and calm establishment in numerous places in the literature.

Evidence from within the Vedas suggests that the Vedic people were acquainted with the seven rivers, especially with the mighty river Saraswati. The description of mighty Sarasvatī  and references related to the terms Sapta-sindhavah͎ and Sapta-Sindhuṣu in Rigveda show a rich historical tradition of Vedic people in that area. The country of seven rivers is very dear to them. Saraswati is described as sapta svara (having seven sisters- 6/61/10, 8/10/9). It is said to be the mother of seven rivers (saraswat̄i saptadhī sindhumātā. -7/36/6). There is much talk and exploration of the river. She is a great river rushing down from mountains towards the ocean (ekā acetat sarasvatī  nadīnām shuchir yāti giribhya ā samudrāt -7/95/2). She is far superior to her companions (uttarā sakhibhyah -7/95/4). She surpasses all other streams by her sheer majesty (prabābadhanā rathyeva yāti  -7/95/1) and glory (pra yā mahimna mahināsu cekite -6/61/13). She is the best of rivers, best of mothers and best of goddesses (ambitame, nadītame devitame sarasvati -2/41/16).

The core region between Sarasvati and Drisadvati rivers was called vara aprithivya (the earth’s best place) and nabha prithivya (the navel of the earth).  It also has been known as ‘Kurukshetra’ (the land of the Kuru people). Manusmriti called it ‘Brahmavarta’ (the divine land). According to mantras, Vedic people feel affection for this area because their civilization began and flourished there in the Saraswati basin since 5000 to 4000 BC. This was the homeland of Vedic Aryan people. Broadly it was the sapta sindu region where Sarasvati was Main River. According to two mantras there were three sets of seven rivers (i.e. twenty one rivers)- trih͎ sapta sasrā nadyo mahir (10/64/9) and pra sapta sapta tredh̄a hi  (10/75/1). The Vajasaneyi-samhitā  (34.11) talks about of five rivers joining the Sarasvati. So we see that the descriptions vary slightly due to the symbolic poetry of Vedic Seers. The important point though, is their fascination regarding the sapta-sindhu area and the river Sarasvati.  The Aitareya and Shatapatha Brahamanas repeatedly mention that Sarasvati either got fanned out in deserts or dried up. Later on, the drying up of Sarasvati led to migrations of people towards the northwest or westward of the Sarasvati river system .This is the opinion of many scholars today.

Atharvaveda’s Bhumi sukta depicts the picture of Indian land. It has six seasons (12/1/36 ), colorful soil, sea, rivers,  mountains, and glorious description of ancestors. In the Rigveda we find names of only three seasons – vasant, grishma and sharad (RV 10/90/6) but they are indicative of winter and rain. These seasons are familiar to Northern India.

PicsArt_02-22-02.07.58

The principal food of the Ṛgvedic Aryans consisted of barley-flour and its various preparations, rice and other cereals, fruits, honey, clarified butter (ghee), curd and other preparations of milk. The sowing, ripening, and ploughing of Yava is mentioned in the Ṛgvedic verses. Etymologically, barley was called Yava because its grain, though one, has two distinctly marked parts, which are still not separated. Specimens of barley, unearthed from the ruins of Mohenjodaron shows its use in that region even in the Ṛgvedic age. It is certain that barley and some other grains were cultivated in Ṛgvedic times. Barley was offered to gods. In their prayers, Vedic people are found asking gods for this grain. In the Atharvaveda it is called one of the two immortal sons of heaven, i.e. barley and rice (AV.8/7/20). These two were the staple crops that were cultivated by the Ṛgvedic Āryans, one in winter or spring and the other during the rainy season. It may be that, as the climate of Punjab was extremely cold in the Ṛgvedic times, the cultivation of barley was more convenient and yielded bumper crops rather than that of rice. Moreover ‘Vrīhi’ – meaning rice – is frequently referred to in the later Vedic works. Dhānya, Dhānā are other words denoting grains in general. It is but natural that for agriculture and cultivation a stable society and lifestyle is needed. Thus seasons, grains and agriculture prove the homeland of Aryans as the region of seven rivers near Punjab.

It is important to note that Salt (Lavan͎a) is not mentioned in the Rigveda, but is frequently mentioned later. Keith and Macdonell has observed that, “it is somewhat surprising, if the regions then occupied by the Indians were the Punjab and the Indus valley, where salt abounds, (that it is not mentioned) it is however, quite possible that a necessary commodity might happen to be passed over without literary mention in a region, where it is very common”. It is sure Āryans knew it because in a Ṛgvedic mantra they talk about thirst (Trishn͎ā) between waters of ocean ( RV 7/89/4).

We found description of ornaments and jewellery in Ṛgveda, almost similar to what we found in Harappan excavations. In both descriptions people used them to decorate head, ears, neck, finger, chest, hands, waist and legs, These decorative items were made of metal,  mud or stone; such as  man͎i grīva, nis͎ka, khādi,sraj, rukma, hiranyavartani etcGenerally it is said that Rigvedic people were living in mud houses in villages. We found that houses and building materials were not unknown to them. In one Mantra worshipper says to Varuna that ‘he does not want to live in a house made of clay’.- Mo shu varuna mrinmayam griham rajan naham gamam (7/89/10). Instead he askes to Parjanya Deva to give ‘tridhatu Sharnam (7/101/2 ) i.e. ‘three  storied dwelling’ according to H H Wilson and ‘Tribhumika house’ according to Sayana. Ayasi Puh (7/95/1) i.e. ‘Fort of iron’ is used for metaphor. Ishttikas meaning bricks are described variously in Brahamana texts. Dvara for door, and chardi for terrace are in common use in the Rigveda. Two ‘Shaala’ sukas  in Atharvaveda describe about bigger and systematic house. This shows that Vedic people liked clean and strong houses for living. Study of Ṛgvedic birds, animals and plants are also relevant in this context to decide about the place and period of Vedic culture. Undoubtedly these too indicate their Indian origin.

Vedic civilization, as reflected in the Ṛgveda, is seen developing gradually in all aspects in the later Vedic texts. Keeping in mind the scientific principles of development of any civilization, it would be appropriate to think of the early period of Vedic civilization as 5000 to 4000 BC. Its later period may be assigned during Harappan period.  Further, other categories of evidence, incorporated with literary evidences, may provide advanced chronological findings of our ancient times.